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Getting to best behavior using response to intervention for behavioral concern s

Getting to Best Behavior- Using Response to Intervention for Behavioral Concerns

Presented by:

Betty White, Former President, TSCA

What is rti
What is RtI? Behavioral Concern

  • RtI, or response to intervention, is a system of providing just as much research based academic or behavioral support as is needed to help a student be successful academically and behaviorally-it originally began in the behavioral arena and has been carried over into academics

Positive behavioral support
Positive Behavioral Support Behavioral Concern

  • PBS is the underlying premise behind behavioral RtI-based on the fact that:

    • Behavior is learned and purposeful

    • Behavior can be changed

    • Positive approaches work better than punitive approaches

    • All people deserve respect and dignity

    • Meeting the need fulfilled by the behavior in a positive way will help to change that behavior

Positive behavioral support1
Positive Behavioral Support Behavioral Concern

PBS integrates 4 elements:

  • Operationally defined outcomes

  • Behavioral science

  • Research validated practices

  • Systems change to both reduce problem behaviors and enhance learning

Pbs is
PBS is: Behavioral Concern

  • Research based

  • Mandated in some cases

  • A way to teach expected behaviors

  • A way to recognize students who make good choices

  • A district wide system to increase academic success

  • A positive way to enjoy teaching and students again

Pbs is not
PBS is not: Behavioral Concern

  • A passing fad

  • Giving free rein to behaviors

  • An overnight success

  • Effective if only a few utilize it

  • Possible without supporting each other

  • Without consequences for inappropriate behaviors

Critical attributes of pbs
Critical Attributes of PBS Behavioral Concern

  • Focuses on all systems within school

  • A tiered model (usually three tiers)

  • Commitment to improving school climate and student performance

  • Intervention strategies to meet campus needs

  • Team based

  • Emphasizes an instructional approach to behavior management

  • Data-based

  • Long term commitment to systems change

  • Continual evaluation and adjustment of interventions

Focus on all systems within school wide system
Focus on All Systems Behavioral Concernwithin School Wide System

Three tiers
Three Tiers Behavioral Concern

  • Tier 1- Primary Prevention -School/Classroom systems for all students, staff, and settings-80%

  • Tier 2- Secondary Prevention -

    Specialized Group Systems for students with At-Risk Behaviors-15%

  • Tier 3- Tertiary Prevention -

    Specialized Individualized Systems for students with At-Risk Behaviors-5%

Three tiered model
Three-Tiered Model Behavioral Concern

5% of students-Specialized Individual Plans for Students with High Risk Behaviors

Tier 3

15% of students-Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behaviors

Tier 2

80% of students-Primary Prevention-School/Classroom Systems for all students, staff, and settings

Tier 1

Commitment to improving school climate and student performance
Commitment to Improving School Climate and Student Performance

  • 80% of faculty agree that discipline is a priority

  • Long term outlook

  • Commitment of necessary resources

  • District Level commitment (best) at LEAST Campus Level

Team based planning
Team Based Planning Performance

  • 4-8 team members

    • Administrative Representation

    • Grade Level Representation

    • Staff Representation

    • Parent? Student? Para?

      Team Meets Regularly-Based on Needs- Usually Starts Weekly and moves to Bi-weekly and Monthly

      Data is used to guide decision making

      Team shares plan and gets input from faculty and staff

Intervention strategies designed for unique needs of each campus
Intervention Strategies Designed for Unique Needs of Each Campus

  • Assess attitudes and needs of faculty and staff about student behavior and school climate

  • Gather objective data about areas of need

  • Appoint team to receive intensive training and lead efforts

  • Team trains staff

  • Team develops plans, present to faculty and staff for approval and input

  • Team meets regularly to review data, assess needs, modify plans, develop new interventions

  • End-of-Year evaluation and revision

Instructional approach
Instructional Approach Campus

  • Students are actively taught the expectations for all areas of the school

  • Expectations are re-taught as needed

  • Consequences for disciplinary infractions are tied to school expectations

    (Assumption: Students misbehave in large part because they do not know/remember the rules or the expectations or they cannot perform the expected action-20+ repetitions needed for mastery.)

Data driven decisions
Data-Driven Decisions Campus

  • All decisions are driven by data

  • Common data used:

    • Surveys

    • Office discipline referrals

    • Attendance

    • Test Scores

    • Parent/Student/Teacher satisfaction surveys

    • Classroom discipline data

    • Suspensions/Expulsions/Detention/ISS data

Continuous evaluation
Continuous Evaluation Campus

  • Needs Change

  • Demographics Change

  • Students Master Skills

  • Expectations Become a Part of School Culture

  • Data Suggests New Target Areas

Tier 1
TIER 1 Campus

  • Tier 1 is the classroom and school-wide rules and expectations

  • Tier 1 interventions should meet the needs of 80% of students with no further intervention

  • Tier 1 effectiveness is based on pre-planning and anticipation of problems, as well as repetitive, direct teaching of expectations

Tier 1 continued
TIER 1, continued Campus

  • Classroom procedures/consequences should be spelled out in advance (see form 1 & 2)

  • Classroom procedures should be similar between classes at a given grade level

  • Expectations and procedures in common areas should be delineated and constant throughout the school

Common procedures
Common Procedures Campus

  • Expectations, procedures, and consequences should be spelled out for: entering the school, waiting for class to start, transitioning in the hall, restroom behavior, lunchroom behavior, playground behavior, exiting behavior, and bus behavior, to name a few-team meetings are used to determine these guidelines

    (Form 3) . The 80% staff rule applies here.


  • Identify 3 strategies your school uses to recognize rule-following behavior

  • List one procedure for each area of your school:

    • Halls

    • Restroom

    • Playground

    • Lunchroom

    • PE

    • Music

    • Bus Line

Getting to best behavior using response to intervention for behavioral concerns
Test Campus

  • Do 80-90% of your students follow these rules and procedures?

  • Are rules consistently enforced by all staff?

  • Would a visitor to your school be able to detect the rules and procedures?

  • Would 5 randomly selected students be able to describe the rules and procedures?

Classroom procedures
Classroom Procedures Campus

  • Explicitly teach expectations before an activity begins (looks like-sounds like)

  • Monitor students during the activity

  • Provide feedback both during and after the activity

  • Make changes as necessary

Classroom procedures1
Classroom Procedures Campus

  • Monitoring of student misbehavior(s) on a simple grid (by hour) with a code for various behaviors (Form 4)

  • At 85% level or higher-keep procedures the same-make individual or small group plans for the few who are misbehaving

  • At 60-84% level-review structure and consider structural changes or motivational changes

  • Below 60% level-Review classroom structure implement changes

Hierarchy of consequences
Hierarchy of Consequences Campus

  • Timeout from a favored object (bumpy bunny from Tough Kid), from a small group, from a favored activity (recess)

  • Timeout at desk, in isolation in class, in another classroom, at another lunch table

  • Logical consequences-you made a mess, you clean it up (increase amount for repeat offenses)

  • Positive practice (go back and walk)

  • Point system with fines

  • Response cost (lose tickets)

  • Detention

  • Demerits (allows time to change)

  • Office referral

Planned responses
Planned Responses Campus

  • Brainstorm with others at your grade level an EXHAUSTIVE list of probable misbehaviors and, either as a team or on your own, decide if a behavior will be ignored, corrected or consequated

  • If there is to be a consequence, decide upon whether is will be an in class or an out of class consequence-make a list and stick to it!

  • Once you have your list, review your day and look at when these behaviors are occurring. Make any structural or procedural changes needed

Secondary level interventions
Secondary Level Interventions Campus

  • Must have a systemic procedure for deciding which students need these services

    • A certain number of referrals within a certain time period

    • Nature of referrals

    • Academic failure

    • Teacher recommendation

When to move to level 2
When to Move to Level 2 Campus

  • Student has many referrals

  • A few students display patterns of inappropriate behaviors

  • Certain situations seem difficult for certain students

  • Certain students seem to lack behavioral/social/emotional skills

Secondary interventions
Secondary Interventions Campus

  • Small group instruction for skills

  • Check in-check out

  • Mentors

  • One-on-one time

  • Behavioral Contracting

Secondary interventions1
Secondary Interventions Campus

  • Interview and intervention

  • Academic Assistance

  • Targeting Behaviors

  • Data Collection/Review

  • Accentuating the Positive

Small group instruction for skills
Small Group Instruction for Skills Campus

  • Typically, small groups will be led by counselor

  • May deal with a variety of topics: Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, Goal Setting, Anger Management, Impulse Control, Study Skills

  • Help students gain needed skills to be successful in classroom

Check in check out
Check-in-Check-out Campus

  • Best for behaviors motivated by attention

  • Daily check in with one staff member

  • Teachers provide verbal and written feedback throughout the day

  • Form is sent home daily

  • Reinforcers provided for pre-set totals

  • Monitor and adjust as needed

  • (See form 5)

Morning check in
Morning Check-in Campus

  • Praise student for bringing back signed form

  • Check student’s preparedness for class (materials, breakfast, emotional state)

  • Review rules, expectations, reinforcers-get verbal commitment

  • Complete student record keeping

End of day check out
End of Day Check-out Campus

  • Review report card with student

    • Focus on positive reports

    • Problem solve if needed

    • Listen to student if he is frustrated

  • Student earns small treat if compliant with program

  • Complete home report if used

  • Record points earned

Reinforcers for cico
Reinforcers for CICO Campus

  • At least once per week, student spends points earned

  • Provide a reinforcement menu

    • Items available for:

      • Low cost (<70% of points)

      • Medium cost (80% of points)

      • High Cost (90% of points)

  • Have students help with preparing reinforcement menu from choices you provide

  • Consider function of behaviors and tailor reinforcers to meet those functions

Home reports
Home Reports Campus

  • Consider having student take report home-give points for return of signed report

  • Be sure parents know to expect form

  • Provide guidance to parents about how to discuss form with student

Monitor effects of cico
Monitor Effects of CICO Campus

  • General rule-80% of points

  • Assess points

    • Is there a pattern?

  • Evaluate program implementation

    • Are all teachers using it correctly?

  • Adjust program if needed

    • More frequent check-in

    • Different reinforcers

    • Does program address function of behavior?

Mentors Campus

  • Brainstorm list of students who might need mentors

  • Tell teachers they cannot choose more than 2

  • Give brief information about student needs, but do not over-disclose

  • Provide mentors will feedback on student improvement

One on one time
One-on-One Time Campus

  • A hard sell for teachers, but very effective

  • Teachers set aside 20 minutes from conference 1-2 days per week

  • During that time, they bring in one student and allow them time to play with special toys (younger) or to talk or help (older)

  • Time together is non-directive, positive interaction without any discussion about classroom misbehavior

Behavior contracting
Behavior Contracting Campus

  • Student and teacher or counselor design a contract for specified behavioral goals, time frame and rewards and consequences

  • Be sure initial contract is not too ambitious

  • First time a contract is broken, consider time frame, etc. and try again

  • If student repeatedly breaks contract, it is not working-try something else

Interview and intervention
Interview and Intervention Campus

  • Appropriate for minor but irritating behaviors (tattling, immaturity, whining, disorganization)

  • Moderate misbehaviors in early stages (arguing, disruption, tardiness, poor quality work, poor compliance skills)

  • Chronic behaviors as part of another plan (tantrums, stealing, lying, cheating, fighting, destruction of property, scape-goating)

  • Can also be used with more than one student simultaneously with minor form modifications

Why it works
Why it Works Campus

  • It is quick and easy

  • Documentation is built in

  • It shows respect for student and allows input (empowers)

  • Much misbehavior results from a lack of information

How it works
How it Works Campus

  • Identify your MAIN concern

  • Plan your discussion

  • Set an appointment with the student at a neutral time

  • Meet with the student

  • Keep a written record of the discussion (Form 6)

Academic assistance
Academic Assistance Campus

  • Often, students who misbehave are simply either expressing their frustration with academic tasks or avoiding tasks that are too hard (it is easier to say I won’t than I can’t)

  • Behaviors that often have an academic component are: incomplete or late work, class clown, attention getting or avoiding, cheating, lying, frequent visits to nurse or counselor, lack of energy, sleeping, anger, refusal to do work, tearing up work, withdrawal, attentional issues

Interventions Campus

  • Refer student to Academic RtI team for assistance

  • Provide explicit teaching for academic skills such as graphic organizers, mnemonics, study guides, partitioned work, highlighted texts, pre-teaching, organizational strategies, assignment sheets, etc.

Targeting behaviors
Targeting Behaviors Campus

  • Students may want to do better but do not know how to target, plan, and reach a goal

  • Student may not have alternative strategies

  • This is appropriate for: minor repetitive misbehaviors like tattling, disorganization, sloppy work, disorganization, absenteeism, interruption

  • Habits such as pencil tapping, chair tipping, picking, tapping and drumming,

  • Disruptive behaviors, insubordination, rudeness, excessive movement, negativity, bossiness, arguing, talking back, disrespect, excessive shyness, lack of assertiveness, reluctance to ask for help

Intervention Campus

  • Review the student’s history

  • Note previous interventions and success rates

  • Note the student’s strengths

  • Determine your desired outcome

  • Decide if consequences should be part of the plan

  • Decide if rewards should be part of the plan

  • Decide if you will be collaborative or authoritative in setting targets (goals)

  • Set up a conference with the student

Intervention cont
Intervention, cont. Campus

  • Meet with the student, and discuss the problem (behavior) that should change

  • Assist the student in setting a short range target

  • Determine consequences/rewards

  • Document and provide feedback (see form 7)

Data collection and review
Data Collection and Review Campus

  • This intervention is best for chronic misbehavior that is resistant to intervention

  • One reason for going to this model is that it allows you and the student to see incremental growth, gives the student feedback, and lets you know how your interventions are working

Data collection and review1
Data Collection and Review Campus

  • There are many forms for data collection: (Form 8)

    • Student Behavioral Monitoring form

    • Basic Frequency count (hash-marks, counter)

    • Duration Recording (for infrequent but long lasting behaviors)

    • Interval Recording (shows pattern)

    • Rating scale (severity)

    • Running record-written log of behavior

    • Smile/Frown for younger students

Data collection and review2
Data Collection and Review Campus

  • Meet with the student (group) and decide what data you are going to collect

  • Meet with the student (group) following collection to discuss results

  • Decide whether the student will participate in collection (for example, a time goes off, student records whether their behavior is appropriate at that time.)

  • Usually, simply recording and sharing the data will result in improvement

Accentuating the positive
Accentuating the Positive Campus

  • This interventions is helpful for students with chronic attention getting behaviors such as disruption, arguing, tattling, excuses, teasing, lawyering, as well as the child who lacks self-confidence and is clingy or dependent

Accentuating the positive1
Accentuating the Positive Campus

  • Make a plan for both the whole call and for individual students as to how you will increase your positive interactions

  • Develop a system for monitoring your positive vs negative interactions (a simple way is to carry an index card and make tally marks on one side for negative and on one side for positive, or drop paper clips in pockets for interactions

  • You may need an observer to come in and help you monitor yourself. Be sure to note whether you are “on your best behavior” for that observation

Accentuating the positive2
Accentuating the Positive Campus

  • Categorize misbehaviors and decide how you are going to react to them-ignoring, pre-correcting, time-owed, time-out, change of seat, behavior improvement form or questions (Form 9)

  • Mentally rehearse your interactions in advance, especially with challenging students

Level three interventions
Level Three Interventions Campus

  • Focus on individual interventions when…

    • Less than 10 students get more than 10 ODRs

    • Less than 10 students continue the same rate of ODRs following targeted group interventions

    • A small number of students destabilize the overall functioning of the school

    • Certain serious types of dangerous or antisocial behaviors

    • Students are identified as needing additional individual support by teachers, counselors, etc.