Chapter 6 and Final Exam Review. Short Answers Questions. George Washington Shapes the Government.
Short Answers Questions
Judiciary Act of 1789: This act set up a Supreme Court with a chief justice and 5 associate judges, 3 federal court circuits and 13 federal district courts throughout the country, and allowed for state court decisions to be appealed to a higher court when constitutional issues were raised. This made federal laws “the supreme law of the land.
To help the Executive Branch govern, Congress created 3 divisions of the Executive Branch: the Department of State, Department of War, and Department of the Treasury.
Conflict occurred within Washington’s cabinet between Jefferson and Hamilton over the economic plan as well as the way the government should run.
This ultimately led to the two-party system in which Hamilton led Federalists and Jefferson led Democratic-Republicans.
Adams sent diplomats to meet with the French foreign minister Talleyrand and they were bribed by 3 low-level officials, later called “X,Y and Z,” for $250,000.
This led to anti-French sentiments in the U.S. and the Alien & Sedition Acts-
The Alien Acts: raised residence requirements from 5 to 14yrs for citizenship and allowed the president to deport or jail any alien considered undesirable.
The Sedition Act: set fines and jail terms to anyone trying to undermine the government. This led to several Democratic-Republicans being jailed as well as outrage.
Jefferson and Madison react with the VA & KY resolutions which asserted state’s rights to nullify an act passed by Congress if deemed unconstitutional or a misuse of power.
Jefferson wanted to bring back the republican spirit of 1776 and to do so he replaced several Federalists with Democratic-Republicans.
He acted as a common man by doing subtle acts such as walking to his inauguration (as opposed to riding in a carriage) and he dressed plainly and did not wear a powdered wig.
To simplify things more, he reduced the navy, cut internal taxes, and reduced the B.U.S’s power. He believed in free trade.
Adam’s tried to maintain Federalist control in the Judicial Branch by enacting the Judiciary Act of 1801 which increased the number of federal judges by 16. Adam’s appointed Federalists to these positions.
This led to the monumentalMarbury v. Madison case. Marbury argued that the Supreme Court was required to order the delivery of his papers, but the court ruled against this, affirming the principle of judicial review, which was the ability of the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.
Several issues led to the War of 1812:
British blockade and impressment
(2) Chesapeake Incident
(3) British arming Native Americans
The U.S. had burned down the governmental buildings in Canada during the Battle of York, and in retaliation the British burned down the new capital building in D.C.
The U.S. Navy did well against the British initially since their ships were faster, but the superior number of British ships were able to bottle the American ships into the harbors.
The War of 1812 was ended with an armistice at the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. This was a cease fire, and laid the groundwork for peaceful relations between Britain and the U.S.
Andrew Jackson won a major victory against the British at the Battle of New Orleans. The irony was that the Treaty of Ghent had been established two weeks prior to this victory.
Why did the trades or bargains between Indians and the English colonist not work out?
Native Americans required larger area of lands for their nomadic lifestyle, and they also viewed the idea of ownership differently.
The English bargained with the Indians for ownership of the land since they were farmers and lived in one area (sedentary lifestyle), but Natives thought they were offering goods to share the land. They did not believe in ownership of the Earth.
When Natives tried to hunt on the land they thought they were sharing, disputes broke out since they had misunderstood the English intent.
The English also had a prejudice view towards Indians, which led to them taking land and going to war with an “inferior” race.
What led to the success of Jamestown?
Several factors led to Jamestown’s success:
The leadership of John Smith– “he that does not work, shall not eat”
John Rolfe’s strain of tobacco that could grow in colder climates.
The Headright System which brought in more settlers/servants.
The labor of indentured servants working the fields.
Explain the events in Bacon’s rebellion. Why did it begin, and how did it end? Who were the primary agents involved?
Native American attacks on the western farms of Virginia led to the poor farmers seeking help from Governor William Berkeley. Berkeley had been levying higher taxes for personal gain, and did nothing to help the lower class.
Bacon raised an army to fight the natives in 1676, but Berkeley declared his army illegal. Angered with his ruling, Bacon marched into Jamestown with his army to confront colonial leaders about several issues.
The mob turned violent and led to Berkeley fleeing the settlement. Bacon died shortly after of dysentery, but the Governor was recalled to England and this became an example of the power in the solidarity of the lower class.
Failure to enslave natives and the decrease of indentured servants led to African slaves becoming a cheaper option.
Slaves were branded, beaten, and stuffed into the holds of ships. Starvation and disease, as well as suicide led to the deaths of several slaves in transit.
Africans were part of the transatlantic slave trade also known as the triangular trade. Merchants carried rum and other goods from New England to Africa where they would pick up enslaved people who would then be brought to the West Indies in exchange for sugar and molasses.
Most slaves worked in the field starting at the age of 12 and continuing on till unfit to work. Some were domestic servants and lived in the house of their masters. They were beaten, restricted by slave codes, and women were sexually abused.
Long, deep rivers that allowed for plantations to ship their goods without the need of docks and port cities, fertile soil and longer growing seasons led to a plantation based society in the South.
Farmers saw the economic benefits of growing one crop for greater profits. This became known as specialization and caused the South to develop differently then the North.
The North did not rely on cash crops since they had rocky soil. Northerners prospered from ship building and merchants became wealthy from trade. Northern distillers also produced rum. The North relied on ports to ship goods and cities were formed around these ports.
The witch trials began with the testimony of two girls who fell into hysteria after their slave “cast a spell,” this resulted in the hanging of 19 and 1 man being crushed to death.
The accused were generally outcasts or seen as acting strange. The trials ended once the Governors wife was accused.
Causes included: Immigrants and population growth led to social tensions.
The new charter granted to Massachusetts after 1689 undercut Puritan dominance in the region.
Native American attacks kept the Puritans in constant fear and paranoia.
Religious fanaticism coupled with the constraints placed on women led to women using the church as a forum for public outcry.
The British were losing the war at first due to the guerilla warfare tactics utilized by the French and Natives. Their formal line style of fighting was useless against this type of warfare.
Following the war, the Native Americans took the biggest loss since they now had to deal with the English who refused to negotiate with them for land, and they had lost the protection of both the Spanish and French.
The colonist’s opinions of the British were drastically changed by the war. They no longer saw the British as invincible, and were angered by the Proclamation of 1763 and Sugar Act which followed the Treaty of Paris. They felt unfairly taxed and wanted to settle the land acquired through the war.
March, 1765: George Grenville persuades Parliament to pass the Stamp Act.
This act requires colonists to purchase special stamped paper for every legal document, license, newspaper, pamphlet, and almanac. The special “duties” were also imposed on dice and playing cards.
This was a direct tax, which colonists reacted to with boycotts and violence against customs officials. Tarring and feathering were common.
Although the British repealed the Stamp Act, they issued the Declaratory Act which asserted that Parliament had the right to create laws in the colonies.
the Townshend Act was indirect. It taxed materials such as glass, lead, paint and paper. It also placed a three-penny tax on tea. Colonists would again boycott British goods by making their own tea, clothing, and forgoing the purchase of British luxuries.
The Declaration stated that people had “natural, unalienable” rights. Jefferson called these rights “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.”
Jefferson also declared that the government derived its power from the consent of the governed. This also meant that people had the right to alter or abolish a government they felt was encroaching on their rights.
Jefferson took these ideals from John Locke’s essays which came from the Enlightenment. Locke argued that life, liberty, and private property should be under the protection of the government elected by the people.
Unfortunately, the marginalized population was left out of the Declarations clauses. These were the women, Native Americans, and African-Americans (free and enslaved).
The Revolutionary promise only applied to the white males in the colonies, and this contradicted the “all men are created equal,” statement.
The revolution effected all levels of society, especially the economy.
The Congress ran out of gold and silver and had to borrow money through selling bonds to investors and foreign governments.
They printed paper money, called Continentals, to pay troops. But massive amounts of paper money being printed without gold to back it led to inflation.
Equipment was also in short supply due to the naval blockade, and some agencies engaged in profiteering. This was the sale of goods of poor quality for a profit.
Congress appointed Robert Morris as superintendent of finance and he, with the help of Haym Salomon, raised money from a variety of sources to pay the troops in specie (gold coin).
Society was also impacted by the loss of workforce since males went to war, as well as the southern loss of over 100,000 slaves that escaped during this time. Women in particular, felt the effects of war.
Wives were left at home to manage farms, businesses, and raise children.
Women also volunteered their services by mending and washing clothes, and making ammunition out of silverware.
And some brave women went to war to support their husbands. The most famous was “Molly Pitcher” who was a noncommissioned officer.
Many African Americans escaped to freedom, while others joined the fight. They generally joined the side that offered freedom, and some became famous. James Armistead was one such African American who acted as a double spy and aided our victory at Yorktown.
Native Americans remained neutral for the most part, while some fought for the British. They feared the colonial advancement into their territories if the British lost the war.
Three questions needed to be answered by the Congress to establish the National government:
First, they needed to decide whether representation in congress should be by population or by state. This was due to argument between large and small states.
Second, the question of how supreme powers could be divided was an issue. The delegates discussed how national and state powers could coexist.
Third, the states discussed who would get the lands west of the Appalachian Mountains. This resulted in all states giving up land claims so that Maryland would approve the Articles of Confederation.
The questions were problematic since many states did not want a central government for fear of losing state powers or not being heard over larger states.
Shays’s Rebellion was in response to the courts taking the lands of debt ridden farmers following the Revolutionary War. Shays led a militia of farmers to the courts to shut them down, and then on to an arsenal.
This forced the government to see the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, which allowed for states to overtax its citizens.
Many other states began fearing similar rebellions since they all had debt ridden farmers that could revolt at any time.
In response to this rebellion, delegates met to discuss the issues raised by Shays and this ultimately led to the drafting of our Constitution.
James Madison’s Virginia Plan
William Patterson’s New Jersey Plan
The two plans of big and small states became deadlocked over how the representation should be handled.
Roger Sherman from CT suggested what came to be known as the Great Compromise. This plan offered a two-house Congress to satisfy both big and small states.
The upper house, or Senate, would have equal representation by state. The lower house, or House of Representatives, would have representation based on population.
This plan pleased those who favored government by the people as well as defended states rights.