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The Technology in E-government. PAD 6710: Lecture 3. M, E, P government. Four levels of e-government E-gov information Providing govt. info. online E-gov Automation Automating manual work E-gov reengineering Redesign of existing processes P-gov innovation Performance government

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m e p government
M, E, P government
  • Four levels of e-government
    • E-gov information
      • Providing govt. info. online
    • E-gov Automation
      • Automating manual work
    • E-gov reengineering
      • Redesign of existing processes
    • P-gov innovation
      • Performance government
      • 311 (Customer Relationship Management)
technologies
Technologies
  • Computers: Smart Machines?
  • Communication systems
  • Communications infrastructure
  • Emerging technology trends
    • RFID
    • GIS
computer systems
Computer systems
  • First generation computers (1951-58)
    • Vacuum tube circuits [ENIAC to UNIVAC]
    • Machine Language
  • Second generation (1959-63)
    • Transistors; mainframe computers
    • Compiler Programs (FORTRAN/ COBOL)
  • Third generation (1964-75)
    • Minicomputers (DEC); Integrated circuits (LSI)
    • BASIC, ALGOL
  • Fourth generation (1970s-)
    • Microprocessors (VLSI)
    • Industry specific softwares
computers
Computers
  • Laptops
    • 1979-87: Emerging period
    • 1987-95: Diversification period (Apple)
    • 1995-2001: Standardization period (of Operating Systems)
    • 2001-: Growth period (Netbooks included)
  • Smart machine: Turing test
    • Logic; enumeration; artificial intelligence
  • Moore’s law: Increasing density
communications phones
Communications: Phones
  • Landlines based
    • Telegraph (1844); Telephone (1876)
    • Extensive infrastructure
      • PBX/ PABX/ EPABX
      • Circuit switching
  • Wireless based
    • Mass media (Radio/ TV)
    • Mobile phone Generations
      • 1G: Analog Cellular phones (1981-90)
      • 2G: Digital cellular phones (1991-01) [GSM; CDMA; TDMA]
      • 3G: Digital data phones (2001-now) [UMTS; EVDO
      • 4G?: Faster data phones [LTE; WiMax;UMB]
communication internet
Communication: Internet
  • Federal Network systems
    • ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency)
    • NSFNET
  • University Consortiums
    • BITNET
  • Browser/ Network Protocols
    • File Transfer Protocol (FTP), 1971
    • Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/ IP)
    • Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
    • Domain Name System (DNS) [Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers]
communications ip based
Communications: IP based
  • Digital Infrastructure
    • Packet switching
  • Voice Over IP
  • Internet Protocol TV
ip based services1
IP based services
  • Podcasts; Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
  • Collective intelligence: blogs, wikis, twitter
  • Multimedia (Youtube)
  • Peer to Peer networks [Trading (ebay), Lending] (prosper.com)
  • Social networking(LinkedIn; Xanga)
    • Transaction-oriented communities
    • Interest-oriented communities
    • Fantasy-oriented communities
    • Relationship-oriented communities
digital will replace analog
Digital will replace Analog
  • IP based TV will replace Cathode Ray tube TV
  • Digital Personal Communications Service (PCS) phones will replace Cell phones
  • Multipurpose Digital phones
    • VoIP
    • E-conferencing
    • Multimedia (Cellywood)
    • GPS
  • Data mining techniques
  • If anything can be digitized, it will
virtual world simulations
Virtual World Simulations
  • Life imitating … (art, comic books,…)
  • 3D Internet
  • Video/ Electronic/ Virtual Gaming
    • Pachinko
    • Play money (QQ coins)
  • Second Life/ Active Worlds
    • Virtual currency (Linden)
    • Virtual real estate
    • Virtual persona
  • Uses
    • Libraries
    • Museums
    • Colleges and universities
    • The media
cloud computing
Cloud computing
  • Also, distributed/grid computing
    • Computing services are delivered over the Internet, on demand, from a remote location, rather than residing on one’s own desktop, laptop, mobile device, or even on an organization’s servers
  • Benefits
    • Rapid scalability and deployment capabilities
    • Decreased maintenance/upgrades
    • Improved economies of scale
communications infrastructure
Communications Infrastructure
  • Network
    • Telephone Modems [56.6 kbps]
    • Broadbands >200
      • Digital Subscriber Line (256 Kbps to 6 Mbps) [20 to 1 contention ratio]
      • Cable Modems (1 – 6 Mbps) [50 to 1 contention ratio]
      • T1/ T2 lines [10-100 Mbps]
  • Network infrastructure
    • Wired or Wireless
wired communications
Wired communications
  • Fiber to the Home (FTTH)
    • Delivery of communications over optical fiber
    • About 1.2% of homes have FTTH connections.
    • Dallas, Jackson (TN), Sacramento
broadband over power line
Broadband over Power Line
  • Power Line Communications (PLC), Power Line Telecommunications (PLT)
  • Manassas, VA deployed the nation's first citywide BPL system recently
  • The National Association for Amateur Radio opposes the idea due to interference with radio waves
wireless infrastructure
Wireless infrastructure
  • Licensed vs unlicensed frequency
  • Personal Area Networks (e.g.Bluetooth, Ultra Wide Band)
    • 2.4 Ghz; 720 kbps
  • Medium Range
    • Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)
      • Range upto 300’; 2.4 GHz
      • IEEE 802.11 standard
  • Long Range
    • WiMax (Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access)
        • Range upto 30 miles
          • IEEE 802.16 standard
    • Mesh Networks
  • Satellite
wireless infrastructure1
Wireless Infrastructure
  • Wireless is the future of broadband.
  • Electromagnetic radio waves is the next REAL ESTATE
    • FCC auctioning of 700 MHz band spectrum
  • Need for transmitters
    • Bluetooth, UWB; Wi-Fi; WiMax; Mesh
  • Hybrid
    • Telephone lines; Electrical lines (BPL); Optical Fibers (FTTH)
slide28
RFID
  • RFID tags: Active; Passive; Semi-passive
  • RFID receivers
  • Electronic product codes
  • Uses:
    • Supply Chain Management
    • Asset (Inventory) Management
    • Maintenance of materiel
rfid verichip
RFID: Verichip

HTTP://WWW.SPYCHIPS.COM

rfid sensor devices
RFID Sensor Devices
  • RFID tags (with EPC) will become cheap enough to tag objects & persons
  • Alternative: Smart cards
  • Are RFID tags SPY CHIPS?
location based service gis
Location based service: GIS
  • Desktop GIS
      • Proprietary GIS software
      • Accessible to one person at a time
      • Developer = User
      • Steep learning curve
  • Web-GIS
      • Proprietary GIS software
      • Accessible over internet
      • Separation of developers and users
      • Flatter learning curve for users
  • Geospatial Web (Where 2.0?)
      • Tagging content and data with geographic metadata
      • Open access to GIS
      • GIS combined with Web 2.0 tools (mashups)
      • Multiple developers as well as users
  • Uses
      • Emergency management; Surveillance; Transit
      • Loopt; Google’s Latitude; Foursquare; Hot Potato; Whrrl; Gowalla
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