“Learn to Learn! Develop Your Autonomy in Learning!” StudentsCentredTechniques
Learning the nature of the learning process, the individual's own perceptions, thoughts and feelings eying the knowledge and experience of the meaning of the discovery and configuration process. Therefore, learning to learn, student-centered education is essential. Student-centered teaching methods shift the focus of activity from the teacher to the learners. These methods include active learning, in which students solve problems, answer questions, formulate questions of their own, discuss, explain, debate, or brainstorm during class; cooperative learning, in which students work in teams on problems and projects under conditions that assure both positive interdependence and individual accountability; and inductive teaching and learning, in which students are first presented with challenges (questions or problems) and learn the course material in the context of addressing the challenges. Inductive methods include inquiry-based learning, case-based instruction, problem-based learning, project-based learning, discovery learning, and just-in-time teaching. Student-centered methods have repeatedly been shown to be superior to the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, a conclusion that applies whether the assessed outcome is short-term mastery, long-term retention, or depth of understanding of course material, acquisition of critical thinking or creative problem-solving skills, formation of positive attitudes toward the subject being taught, or level of confidence in knowledge or skills.
What is student-centred learning? Teaching in student-centred environment includes: • language activities, techniques, methods where the students/learners are the focus and the teacher plays only a peripheral role; • allowing students some control over the activity or some input into the curriculum, thus encouraging student creativity; • group work; • allowing students to design their own assessment; • catering for individual styles and needs of the learners; • is thought to be intrinsically motivating and thus beneficial; and • the role of the teacher is to monitor the students and give advice or ideas so that they may draw conclusions and solutions independently or cooperatively.
SimulationMethod • Inthismethod, samplesarecreatedfromreal life forstudents (forexample, a classto be convertedintooffices , laboratories, workshops , etc.). Inthisenvironment, problemsortasksaregiventostudents. Students in theprocess of doingbusinesswiththesupport of teachersusetheirknowledgeandskillsup. • DemonstrationMethod • Anyprocess is a visualrepresentation of theprocessorsteps. Oral presentation , displayandconsists of questions . Aftertellingtheteachertostudents in the form of individualorgroupapplicationsarebuilt . Thismethod is a toolor how touse a tool , usedtoteach how to do a transaction. Computeruseeither form of thefilling. • Steps: • Toarousetheinterest of students. • Show byexplainingslowly. • Subscribestudents. • Whentheycloselymonitorandcorrecterrors as appropriate. • Ifnecessary, do it yourselfonceagain. • Said methodcomprising: • • Inherentlyarouseinterest in students. • • Provides of theoryintopractice. • • Writtenorverbalexpression is moreeffectivethan.
Role RemodelingMethod • Inthismethod, studentsaregivenreal -life situations, and in thesecasesyouneedto do a taskorsolve a problem exists . Theselectedtasks / problemsshould be fromreal life . Theprocess of doingthejobor problem -solvingmethodsdependsentirely on thestudents' ownknowledgeandskills . Methodsandresultsareopen-ended . Thistechnique is mostsuitableforgroupwork. • Advantages: • • Basic structurehelpstosee in practice. • • Similartoreal-life situations in theevent of transfer totheclassroomenvironment. • • Thinking , independentresearchandexecution re-builtandstudentsprovides a betterunderstanding of therealproblems. • • Participationandencouragesdiverseopinionsandsolutions. • ComputerAidedEducation • Thisteachingmethod is directedtostudents' individuallearning . However, thistargetgoalsdeterminedbytheteacheraccordingto a program should be established. Preparedbytheschoolortrainingprogramsavailable in the market is forthispurpose . Teachersexaminetheseprogramsshould be knowledgeableaboutoperatingsystems . Only in thisway can supportthework of individualstudents. • Discovery Method • Previously unknown to detect the expression of ideas is a method. Increases student’s mental effort. Ensures that the information acquired more persistent.
Irony Method • Students unorthodox events of life can bring and teaches that it should be prepared. Student's life easier confronted surprised that allows you to accept and be more durable. • Discussion Method • In a group where members face to face , under the guidance of a leader on a particular issue is the planned and systematic process of interaction .Students using the discussion method is more tolerant of different ideas and learn better social assistance. • Research Method • In this method, teachers, students, issues of interest to want to examine this issue from the students themselves .Students using the discussion method is more tolerant of different ideas and learn better social assistance. • Test Method • In this method, using multiple senses for learning to occur , learning is more permanent .
Teacher - Student Interactive Methods • Brainstorming • One problem, issue or question that comes to mind should be told about the first. What is important here as everyone's ideas clearly, and you can be told. It is important that the nature of the quantity not ideas. There is no good or bad idea. Every idea can be accepted. • This technique; • · Decision making, with different approaches in finding solutions to problems a new topic or concept is very useful in the promotion. provides maximum student participation. • Ask a Question Technique • In this technique the students to a subject-matter experts in an article with ideas they read or are obliged to ask questions. A person skilled in the classroom as much as possible to try to guests. These individuals will bring examples of real professional life. In relation to this activity, inform students and ask them to ask questions. • Think-Pair-Share • Studentsthinkabouttheanswerto a questionposedbytheinstructor, andthendiscussthequestionamongeachother. Theinstructorselectsstudentstoexplaintheconsensustotheclass.
One-minutepapers • Given an open – endedquestion, studentsspendoneminutewritingtheiranswers on indexcards, whicharecollectedbytheinstructor. Oftengiven at the en of class, thequestions ask studentswhatwasthemostimportantconcepttheylearnedorwhatremainsunclear. • Interactive lecturedemonstrations (ILDs) • Studentsmakepredictionsabouttheoutcome of a classroomdemonstration. Theythenobservetheexperimentordemonstration, describetheresults, anddiscussandreflect on theobservedoutcome. • Tutorialworksheets • Studentsworkthroughguided-discoveryworksheetsthatleadthemthrough a chain of logictosolve a problem orovercome a conceptualdifficulty. Studentscompletetheexercises in smallgroups, whiletheinstructorcirculatesamongthegroupsto ask targetedquestionsortofacilitatediscussion. • Problem – basedlearning • Studentswork in groupstosolvecomplex, multifaceted, andrealisticproblems, researchingandlearningnecessary background material as needed.
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.