Person Centred Therapy Personality people are trustworthy, resourceful, capable of self understanding and self direction, able to make self corrective changes and able to live effective and productive lives the individual has an inherent capacity to move away from maladjustment and toward psychological health Development of self-concept Through life experiences the person differentiates ownership or context of experience and beliefs which are aspects of self or aspects of the environment
Motivation The individual has one motivational force "self actualization" Self Actualization - the inherent tendency of the organism to develop all its capacities in ways which serve to maintain or enhance the organism. Rogers 1959
Positive Behavioural Change Man moves toward greater self actualization through the continued differentiation between self and the environment. The individual must become aware of the "masks" they have adopted in the socialization process. Once the individual realizes that their behaviour is strongly influence by social expectation they start to develop their unique personality. The individual is faced with the conflict of what they could be and what society says they should be or will be and self actualization wins out
Dysfunctional Personality Individuals who continue to act within the boundaries of social roles frustrate the self actualization process. They operate form an external locus of control The individual when faced with the conflict of what they could be and what society says they should be or will be and society wins out Maladaptive behaviour is much a function of the lack of fulfillment of individual needs - Maslow's Hierarchy
Six Conditions Necessary for Therapeutic Behavioural Change 1. two people are in psychological contact 2. one; the client is experiencing incongruency or anxiety 3. the other the CYW is congruent or integrated in the relationship 4. the CYW experiences unconditional positive regard or real caring for the client 5. the CYW experiences empathy for the client's internal frame of reference and endeavors to communicate this to the client 6. the communication to the client is to a minimal degree achieved
Client’s movement through change 1. Self Exploration Client is encouraged to examine exactly where they are in their lives 2. Realization of self and social self Client begins to understand the relationship of where they are in life and where the would like to be. 3. Goal directed action Client involves themselves in a plan for change
Characteristics of individuals moving toward self actualization 1. openness to experience 2. trust in themselves 3. internal source of evaluation 4. willingness to continue to grow
Goals of Therapy Provide a safe climate conductive to client's self exploration. Develop a authentic relationship with the client so that they feel valued Help the individual develop a greater degree of independence and personal integration The cornerstone to therapy is the view that clients in a relationship with a facilitating therapist have the capacity to define and clarify their goals appropriately
Therapeutic Techniques Congruence Unconditional positive regard Empathy Active and passive listening Reflection of thoughts and feelings Clarification Summarization Confrontation of contradictions Open leads ( questions) that help client self exploration
Applications Behaviour Management -basic problem with using a "person centred approach" to behaviour management is that our experience with disturbed children and adolescents seems at odds with the basic philosophy that individuals are by nature "self regulating" best case scenario would be to focus on the manner in which behaviour management techniques are implemented. The goal would be to use techniques that were as non interventive as possible to allow the opportunity for the child to figure out their own control behaviour.
Techniques ie. signaling, humour, and hurdle help would be appropriate in that they involve the least intrusive controls punishments, & physical restraint, would be avoided because they basically remove control from the child. There will be situations however where a Person Centre approach is inappropriate
Programming - therapeutic goal is to provide an environment in which the child feels free to develop a greater degree of independence and personal integration. Allow child choice and responsibility in identifying programming activities Counselling refer to therapeutic techniques
Key Terms in Person Centred Therapy Congruence the state in which self experiences are accurately symbolized in the self concept Unconditional Positive Regard the nonjudgmental expression of a fundamental respect for the person as a human being- acceptance of a person's right to his or her feelings Accurate Empathic Understanding - the process of perceiving the internal frame of reference of another - grasping the person's subjective world without losing one's own identity
Terms Internal Locus Of Evaluation - the process of deciding on actions and the evaluation of self worth is located within the self. Congruent beliefs and values - actions and self worth are not the product of social expectation.