EFL Anthony’s model: Approach Method Technique .In 1986 Richards and Rodgers revised Anthony’s model Method Approach Design Procedure
Approach: • Is defined as a theory of the nature of language and the nature of language learning. Approaches to the nature of the language : 1. The traditional App. 2. The structural App. .3. The generative App 4. The functional App.
1. The traditional approach: * Its origin in the study of Latin And Greek(the languages of religion, literature and philosophy of the time.) * Analysis of formal written language and ignore spoken communication. * The formulated the standards of correctness.
2. The structural approach: * At the end of the 19 century attention was on spoken language and emphases was on pronunciation *the analysis of sentence structure and the sequence in which elements in a sentence could occur.
3. The generative approach: * In this approach a distinction is made between linguistic competence (knowledge of the language in the speaker’s mind) and linguistic performance( how a speaker uses this knowledge in producing sentences.) • In 1957 Noam Chomsky rejected the structural approach. because the structural approach only emphasized the performance . * He believed that with in a limited number of rules a speaker is able to create an infinite number of sentences.
* There are two types of rules in this approach : 1. Generative or PSR 2. transformational rules Forms the deep structure changes the deep st.to surface.st Chomsky argued that human beings possess a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) *UG: many aspects of grammar are common to many languages
4. The functional approach: *In the late 1920s attentions were drown to the social aspects of language. *Language was an instrument of social interactions. *In 1962 it was proved that Chomsky’s idea of competence did not account for the social and functional rules of the language . *the study of sociolinguistics aspects of language.
Approaches to language learning: • Faculty psychology : Believed in exercising the mind to make it develop by necessary mind training exercises such as: memorization of the vocabulary and grammatical rules, huge amount of transition to. 2. Behavioristic psychology: attempts to discover the rules that govern the formation of the relationships between stimuli and responses (condition responses)
3. Cognitive psychology: This model distinguishes three types of information storage: Sensory memory , short term memory and long term memory in order to let the learners acquire, process, store , and retrieve information. Deductive and inductive learning: Deductive learning: Moving from rules and principles and then applying the rules to examples. Inductive learning: Arriving at rules and principles by studying examples.
4. Humanistic psychology : * concern with human’s worth , individuals right to determine personal needs , interests and actions. * Relationship with other learners * Emphasize on feeling and thinking
Methods: GTM:(Grammar Translation Method) LA: traditional LLA faculty psychology Main purpose: reading, writing and translation Materials: reading passages, literary textes Memorizing the vocabulary with there equivalents in there mother tongue. Knowing parts of speech and rules of word formation.
Emphasis on grammar which is taught deductively Translation provides useful mental exercise No practice on listening and speaking Activities: Making sentences with given words Answering comprehensions questions Writing dictations Writing summaries about reading passages Writing compositions
Teachers in GTM: Supervise all the class activities Teaching grammatical rules deductively Providing L1 definitions Correcting the learner’s written work Having accurate knowledge of L1 and L2
The reform movement:(1889-1892) Language as a means for communication rather than a tool of the access to literature Pay special attention to pronunciation and spoken language This movement paved the way for a lot of new methods
DM( direct method)1892 LA : The structural approach LLA: behavioristic psychology * Training language learners to communicate in the target language * Having an acceptable pronunciation * Being familiar with the culture of the target community Material : in the form of dialogs and reading passages about a situation or topic including the vocabulary and structure used in every day language. Presented in context graded from simple to complex
*No transition and native language *target language should be learnt in the same way the first language is acquired *grammar is taught inductively *emphasize on oral work *learners imitate and practice until they become fluent *they learn to think in the target language *teacher: Make the meaning clear with the help of gestures, pictures, drawings an demonstrations . Encourages students to ask questions from him and from each other
ALM(audiolingual method)1950s LA: structural approach LLA: behavioristic psychology *During world war II gaining a high degree of oral skill *The sequence of skills : listening, speaking, reading and writing( the order children aquaria their L1. *Grammar: inductively *Over learning by memorization and repetition *Imitating the teacher and tapes as a model
*Activities: repetition , substitution , backward build up ,game and chain drill