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CITATION, FORMAT & STYLE. eLEARNING RPK 214 – Lecture 2. NB.... Please note that ALL assignments in your legal studies MUST comply with the rules to follow in this lecture. Failure to properly comply with it will result in serious mark losses.

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slide1

CITATION, FORMAT & STYLE

eLEARNING RPK 214 – Lecture 2

slide2

NB....

Please note that ALL assignments in your legal studies MUST comply with the rules to follow in this lecture.

Failure to properly comply with it will result in serious mark losses.

These rules will also be important to you in your profession, as pieces of legal writing, for example heads of argument in courts, must also be done in compliance with these rules.

Study Unit 1 contains all information as summarised here

slide3

GENERAL...

  • Paragraphs must be in 1,5 line spacing
  • JUSTIFY paragraphs
  • All text must be typed in Ariel font 12
  • Use bullets carefully – rather find alternative ways...
  • NO abbreviations
        • e.g.  for example / etc.  etcetera
        • South African Revenue Service (SARS)  SARS (abbreviated NAMES of organisations may be used only AFTER it has been clarified)
  • Add page numbers to assignments
  • Avoid symbols: NOT him/her....him OR her
  • Numbers: 1-20  one to twenty (type it out)
  • Currency: R20 000,00 / $20 000.00 / £20 000-00 (In RSA we use the comma)
slide10

HEADINGS

Can add value & structure to your text

Punctuation marks in headings...careful (Only use question marks and hyphens)

Type it in BOLD

Use consistently

Headings  it should provide a clue as to what is to follow, it should NOT be cryptic

slide11

Source references / additional information

Position of reference in text...

- Pay attention.3

- ...pay attention,3 because...

- Smith3 is of the opinion that...

FOOTNOTES...

slide12

STANDARD FORMS OF FOOTNOTES

BOOKS & ARTICLES

1 Smith 2008:5-9.

2 Coetzee et al. 1990:11.

3 Samuels 2009:2; Khati 2011:3.

Full stop!

No space!

1 x TAB

slide13

No space!

No space!

slide14

CRIMINAL COURT CASES:

1 Jones 1962 2 SA A:668.

CASES:

2 Baker v Baker 1945 AD 709:353.

3 Baker v Baker:400.

LEGISLATION:

4 Close Corporations Act 69/1984.

5 Close Corporations Act 69/1984: sec 4.

6 Sec 5.

slide15

INTERNET:

7 MacDonell 2007. http://www.ufs.ac.za. Accessed on 15/02/2009.

8 Smith 1997. http://www.macpro.com/page349.msd. Accessed on 3/12/2011.

slide16

HOW NOT TO DO FOOTNOTES:

1 Smith 1990: 3

2 Mahlakeng 2009:44-47; Myburgh 2011:501-520; Nel:2. (The entire footnotes should be tabbed)

3 This concept should follow the wide, rather than the narrow interpretation.

slide17

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • According to style of JJS (Journal of Juridical Science, as it is described here)
  • References to court cases & legislation are normally NOT included but may if required
  • Categorisation...sometimes you will be asked to categorise the sources. E.g. to group all articles with each other, all books together, etcetera.
slide18

BOOKS:

BROOKS, HL

2003. Legal writing in practice. 2nd Ed. London:CRC Press.

ARTICLES:

JOHNSON, HF

2006. Legal writing in practice. American Law Journal 34(2):1-23.

Book title in italics!

Full stop!

No space!

1 x TAB

Journal title in italics!

Pages

Volume

Number

1 x TAB

slide19

INTERNET:

MACDONELL, H

2007. The intricacies of scientific evidence.

<http://www.scieweb.gov.uk?sci>. Accessed on 3/12/2009.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLES:

KHUMALO, L

2010. Do we still have honest lawyers? The Citizen 14 August:3.

Article / website name in italics!

1 x TAB

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QUOTATIONS

  • Less than 50 words:
          • Enclose in quotation marks
          • Cite author
  • More than 50 words:
          • NO quotation marks!
          • Cite author
          • 1 x TAB before starting quote
          • Single line spacing
          • 10 Ariel font
slide23

Single line spacing

10 Ariel font

1 x TAB

slide24

PLAGIARISM

Direct duplication  formulation & insights / ideas of source text with the intention of presenting it as one’s own work

Academic writing misconduct:

cribbing in tests & exams

fabrication or falsification of data

deliberate dishonesty

purchasing assignments etc.

slide25

PLAGIARISM

  • TYPES:
        • Self
        • Literal
        • Citation
        • Wholesale
slide26

PLAGIARISM

  • PARAPHRASING...Study in Study Unit 1!
        • What is paraphrasing?
        • Is paraphrasing plagiarism?
        • Most frequent form of plagiarism by students
        • When can paraphrasing be used?
slide27

PLAGIARISM

HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM

Cite, cite, cite

Use quotations where quoted

Read sources you use! If you did not read a source (that includes cases!), you may not use it

Rewrite after proper digestion - Read the source. Digest the information into your thoughts. Then rewrite into your own words