What is APA Style? APA is the American Psychological Association APA style is used by researchers in: Health Sciences (nursing, medical assisting, etc.) Social Sciences (psychology, criminaljustice, etc.) Public Relations Business And More APA guidelines help you to: Organize your writing Cite your sources effectively Present yourself professionally in your work Avoid plagiarism
References • Document research. • Enable finding, retrieving, and using sources, so the data must be correct, complete and consistent. • Punctuation and element order are vital. • Accuracy helps establish your credibility.
References continued • Each entry on a reference list contains elements required for unique identification, including, at a minimum, author, title, date, & publication information. • When in doubt, provide more information rather than less. For example, volume, issue, edition, document number, etc.
References continued • To cite a source that is not mentioned in the Andersen Library’s Citing References: APA Styleguide, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. • If there is not specific guidance in the Manual for your source type, then choose the example that is most similar and follow that format.
Basic Paper Guidelines Double-spaced. 1” margins on all sides. 12-point Times New Roman font. Two spaces after a period at the end of a sentence, but one space after commas, semicolons, colons and initials. Do not add spaces to URLs. Unsure? Check the Manual for clarification and other details.
Additional References Page Guidelines • Begins on a new page at the end of your paper. • Title is centered. • Title is: References • ½” (one tab) hanging indentation. • Double space (same as with paper text). • Entries arranged alphabetically by author last name. • If no author is listed, alphabetize using the first citation element. • List works by the same author in chronological order. Do you know how to double-space and do hanging indentation the easy way?
APA, MLA or Turabian? Berndt, Thomas Jefferson. “Friendship Quality and Social Development.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 11, no. 1 (2002): 7-10. Berndt, Thomas Jefferson. “Friendship Quality and Social Development.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 11.1 (2002) : 7-10. Print. Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(1), 7-10. APA
Basics of the Reference Page What do you need to include? • Author name • Publication date • Source title • Where you found it
Authors Author’s name should appear as Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial.Examples: Lewis, S. Salinger, J. D., Geisel, T. S., & Lewis, S. If there’s no author put the title of the work before the publication date. Example: Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary. (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Authors (con’t) Multiple authors? Use the & symbol. • Two authors: Geisel, T. S., & Lewis, S. • Three to seven authors: , & Salinger, J. D., Geisel, T. S., & Lewis, S. • More than seven authors: Dickens, C., Salinger, J. D., Dickinson, E., Geisel, T. S., Lewis, S., Stoker, B., Stowe, H. B., et al. • This is different from the in-text citation rule for the same source (Dickens, C. et al.)
Titles in References Notes on formatting: • Italicize titles of whole works (books, journals, CDs, etc.). • Do not italicize or use quotation marks on titles of parts of works (chapters, articles, songs, etc.). • Only capitalize the first word and proper nouns. • EXCEPTION: Journal titles are capitalized “normally,” i.e. in title case. Book: Hard times. Journal: Dickens Quarterly Article in Journal: Green cheese. Canadian Architect.
Books Moore, L. L., Maye, C., & Collins, E. L. (2011). Advertising and public relations law.New York, NY: Routledge. Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Publication year). Book title. Publication City, State Abbreviation: Publisher.
DOI or URL With electronic journal sources, APA requires inclusion of one of two pieces of information. • doi: A digital object identifier is assigned to a specific article; this can usually be found in or near the citation information in the database where the article was found. • Example: doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.05.011 • URL: Use the uniform resource locator if there is no doi. It directs your reader to the journal homepage, NOT to the database used to find it. • You can usually google the title of the journal plus the publisher name (if known) to find the journal homepage. • Some databases, like those from EBSCOhost, provide this information or a link to the publisher. • Example: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/maturitas/
JOURNAL ARTICLE: two to seven authors; no DOI assigned, paginated by issue, print Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement.Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82. Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Publication year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), first page-last page.
JOURNAL ARTICLE: two to seven authors; DOI assigned; paginated by volume; print, web or library database Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6188.8.131.52 Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Publication year). Article title. Journal Title, volumenumber, first page-last page. doi:digital object identifier
JOURNAL ARTICLE: two to seven authors; no DOI assigned; paginated by issue; web and/or library database Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Publication year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), first page-last page. Retrieved from journal’s homepage URL
Basics of In-Text Citations What do you need to include? • Author’s Last Name • Publication Date • Page Number (required if quoting, encouraged when paraphrasing) Put all of this information in parentheses, or within the text of your paper. Examples: “The moon is made of green cheese” (Dolinger, 2009, p. 99). Dolinger (2009) said, “The moon is made of green cheese” (p. 99).
Formatting Multiple authors • For one or two authors, always list both names connected by the “&” symbol when in parentheses, or “and” when not. Examples: • (Geisel & Lewis) • Geisel and Lewis • For 3-5 authors, list all the first time you cite the source. After that, use the first author’s name, followed by “et al.” Example: • Salinger, Geisel, and Lewis found that… • Salinger et al. stated that… • With 6 or more, just use the first author’s name, followed by et al.Example: • Dickens et al. argued… No author available • Use a shortened title in parentheses (start with the first word). Example: • National Library Week is in April (“Library Event Rocks,” 2009)
Formatting Titles for In-text Citations Whole works should be italicized Books Journals CDs Parts of works should be in “quotation marks” Chapters Journal Articles Song Titles
Parenthetical Citation with Authors Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap/article/view/71 /100 (Sillick & Schutte, 2006, p. 40)
Parenthetical Citation without Author Slingshot fun [Video file]. (2007, January 29). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmZYce0J2E (Slingshot fun, 2007)
References Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.