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APA Citation Style. What is APA Style?. APA is the American Psychological Association APA style is used by researchers in: Health Sciences (nursing, medical assisting, etc.) Social Sciences ( psychology , criminal justice, etc.) Public Relations Business And More

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what is apa style
What is APA Style?

APA is the American Psychological Association

APA style is used by researchers in:

Health Sciences (nursing, medical assisting, etc.)

Social Sciences (psychology, criminaljustice, etc.)

Public Relations

Business

And More

APA guidelines help you to:

Organize your writing

Cite your sources effectively

Present yourself professionally in your work

Avoid plagiarism

references
References
  • Document research.
  • Enable finding, retrieving, and using sources, so the data must be correct, complete and consistent.
  • Punctuation and element order are vital.
  • Accuracy helps establish your credibility.
references continued
References continued
  • Each entry on a reference list contains elements required for unique identification, including, at a minimum, author, title, date, & publication information.
  • When in doubt, provide more information rather than less. For example, volume, issue, edition, document number, etc.
references continued1
References continued
  • To cite a source that is not mentioned in the Andersen Library’s Citing References: APA Styleguide, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed.
  • If there is not specific guidance in the Manual for your source type, then choose the example that is most similar and follow that format.
basic paper guidelines
Basic Paper Guidelines

Double-spaced.

1” margins on all sides.

12-point Times New Roman font.

Two spaces after a period at the end of a sentence, but one space after commas, semicolons, colons and initials. Do not add spaces to URLs.

Unsure? Check the Manual for clarification and other details.

additional references page guidelines
Additional References Page Guidelines
  • Begins on a new page at the end of your paper.
  • Title is centered.
  • Title is: References
  • ½” (one tab) hanging indentation.
  • Double space (same as with paper text).
  • Entries arranged alphabetically by author last name.
    • If no author is listed, alphabetize using the first citation element.
  • List works by the same author in chronological order.

Do you know how to double-space and do hanging indentation the easy way?

apa mla or turabian
APA, MLA or Turabian?

Berndt, Thomas Jefferson. “Friendship Quality and Social Development.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 11, no. 1 (2002): 7-10.

Berndt, Thomas Jefferson. “Friendship Quality and Social Development.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 11.1 (2002) : 7-10. Print.

Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(1), 7-10.

APA

basics of the reference page
Basics of the Reference Page

What do you need to include?

  • Author name
  • Publication date
  • Source title
  • Where you found it
authors
Authors

Author’s name should appear as Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial.Examples:

Lewis, S.

Salinger, J. D., Geisel, T. S., & Lewis, S.

If there’s no author put the title of the work before the publication date. Example:

Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary. (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

authors con t
Authors (con’t)

Multiple authors? Use the & symbol.

  • Two authors:

Geisel, T. S., & Lewis, S.

  • Three to seven authors: , &

Salinger, J. D., Geisel, T. S., & Lewis, S.

  • More than seven authors:

Dickens, C., Salinger, J. D., Dickinson, E., Geisel, T. S., Lewis, S., Stoker, B., Stowe, H. B., et al.

      • This is different from the in-text citation rule for the same source (Dickens, C. et al.)
titles in references
Titles in References

Notes on formatting:

  • Italicize titles of whole works (books, journals, CDs, etc.).
  • Do not italicize or use quotation marks on titles of parts of works (chapters, articles, songs, etc.).
  • Only capitalize the first word and proper nouns.
      • EXCEPTION: Journal titles are capitalized “normally,” i.e. in title case.

Book: Hard times.

Journal: Dickens Quarterly

Article in Journal: Green cheese. Canadian Architect.

books
Books

Moore, L. L., Maye, C., & Collins, E. L. (2011). Advertising and public relations law.New York, NY: Routledge.

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Publication year). Book title. Publication City, State Abbreviation: Publisher.

doi or url
DOI or URL

With electronic journal sources, APA requires inclusion of one of two pieces of information.

  • doi: A digital object identifier is assigned to a specific article; this can usually be found in or near the citation information in the database where the article was found.
    • Example: doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.05.011
  • URL: Use the uniform resource locator if there is no doi. It directs your reader to the journal homepage, NOT to the database used to find it.
    • You can usually google the title of the journal plus the publisher name (if known) to find the journal homepage.
    • Some databases, like those from EBSCOhost, provide this information or a link to the publisher.
    • Example: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/maturitas/
journal article two to seven authors no doi assigned paginated by issue print
JOURNAL ARTICLE: two to seven authors; no DOI assigned, paginated by issue, print

Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement.Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Publication year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), first page-last page.

journal article two to seven authors doi assigned paginated by volume print web or library database
JOURNAL ARTICLE: two to seven authors; DOI assigned; paginated by volume; print, web or library database

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle initial. (Publication year). Article title. Journal Title, volumenumber, first page-last page. doi:digital object identifier

journal article two to seven authors no doi assigned paginated by issue web and or library database
JOURNAL ARTICLE: two to seven authors; no DOI assigned; paginated by issue; web and/or library database

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Publication year). Article title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), first page-last page. Retrieved from journal’s homepage URL

basics of in text citations
Basics of In-Text Citations

What do you need to include?

  • Author’s Last Name
  • Publication Date
  • Page Number (required if quoting, encouraged when paraphrasing)

Put all of this information in parentheses, or within the text of your paper. Examples:

“The moon is made of green cheese” (Dolinger, 2009, p. 99).

Dolinger (2009) said, “The moon is made of green cheese” (p. 99).

formatting
Formatting

Multiple authors

  • For one or two authors, always list both names connected by the “&” symbol when in parentheses, or “and” when not. Examples:
    • (Geisel & Lewis)
    • Geisel and Lewis
  • For 3-5 authors, list all the first time you cite the source. After that, use the first author’s name, followed by “et al.” Example:
    • Salinger, Geisel, and Lewis found that…
    • Salinger et al. stated that…
  • With 6 or more, just use the first author’s name, followed by et al.Example:
    • Dickens et al. argued…

No author available

  • Use a shortened title in parentheses (start with the first word). Example:
    • National Library Week is in April (“Library Event Rocks,” 2009)
formatting titles for in text citations
Formatting Titles for In-text Citations

Whole works should be italicized

Books

Journals

CDs

Parts of works should be in “quotation marks”

Chapters

Journal Articles

Song Titles

parenthetical citation with authors
Parenthetical Citation with Authors

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap/article/view/71 /100

(Sillick & Schutte, 2006, p. 40)

parenthetical citation without author
Parenthetical Citation without Author

Slingshot fun [Video file]. (2007, January 29). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmZYce0J2E

(Slingshot fun, 2007)

references1
References

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.