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Short Project (Midterm) CHEN 489 . Making Nanotechnology Safe. Prepared by: Group U6 - Pavitra Timbalia , Michael Trevathan, Jared Walker. Outline. Part I Introduction Methodology for Safer Nanotechnology Applications Part II Introduction Environment, Health, & Safety

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short project midterm chen 489
Short Project (Midterm)

CHEN 489

Making Nanotechnology Safe

Prepared by: Group U6 -PavitraTimbalia, Michael Trevathan, Jared Walker

outline
Outline
  • Part I
    • Introduction
    • Methodology for Safer Nanotechnology
    • Applications
  • Part II
    • Introduction
    • Environment, Health, & Safety
    • Laws & Regulations
  • Part III
    • Risk Perception
    • Public Opinion
    • Results
the 5 principles of design for safer nanotechnology
The 5 Principles of “Design for Safer Nanotechnology”

Part I

Gregory Morse - "The 5 principles of ‘‘Design for Safer Nanotechnology’’." Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010): 285-89.

introduction
Introduction
  • Nanoparticles: have at least one dimension in the 1-100 nm range
  • $147 billion dollars worth of nano-enabled products produced in 2007 – increase to $3.1 trillion in 2015
  • Concern about health hazards of nanoparticles – quantum dots & carbon nanotubes

http://blogs.cornell.edu/theessentials/files/2010/01/money.jpg

  • Hazard – relationship between dose and acute &
  • chronic responses of substance
  • Hazards are encountered during material
  • processing, transporting, manufacturing, use, &
  • disposal
  • Focus on risk mitigation – minimize risk and
  • maximize benefits

http://chemwebsearch.files.wordpress.com/2008/08/poison-symbol.png

  • Morose, Gregory. "The 5 principles of ‘‘Design for Safer Nanotechnology’’." Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010): 285-89. Web. 22 Feb. 2010.
methods
Methods
  • Design approaches
    • Applied during the design stage for

nanoparticles

  • Non-design approaches
    • Applied during subsequent stages in the product life cycle: material processing, product manufacturing, use, and end-of-life.
    • Use techniques from several fields: hygiene, cleaner production, product stewardship
  • About 70% of the costs of product’s development, manufacture, and use is determined in the initial design of a product – mitigate risk during design stage rather than downstream
  • Five design principles presented in following slides – initial foundation to mitigate risk

http://www.rave-tech.com/userfiles/product-development-1.jpg

  • Morose, Gregory. "The 5 principles of ‘‘Design for Safer Nanotechnology’’." Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010): 285-89. Web. 22 Feb. 2010.
1 size surface structure
1. Size, Surface, & Structure
  • Can affect fundamental nanoparticle properties –

color, conductivity, melting point, reactivity, etc.

  • Want to change the property so that functionality

is preserved, but health risk is mitigated

  • Relationship between particle size and risk
  • Surface: surface chemistry, surface charge,

surface morphology, surface roughness, &contamination

  • Greater the surface area/mass of particle, the greater the toxicity
  • Structure: crystal structure, shape, porosity, chemical composition, aggregation, etc.
  • Researchers state that ‘‘carbon materials with different geometric structures exhibit quite different cytotoxicity and bioactivity in vitro’’

http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2007/07/070709171558-large.jpg

  • Morose, Gregory. "The 5 principles of ‘‘Design for Safer Nanotechnology’’." Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010): 285-89. Web. 22 Feb. 2010.
2 alternative materials
2. Alternative Materials
  • Using alternate materials to replace the hazardous nanoparticle – but still provide desired functionality
    • Combination of materials
    • Substitution
    • Careful analysis of alternate materials needed
  • If no alternates available, may need to redesign product so that hazardous material no longer used
  • Morose, Gregory. "The 5 principles of ‘‘Design for Safer Nanotechnology’’." Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010): 285-89. Web. 22 Feb. 2010.

http://dipc.ehu.es/nano2006/Nanoparticles.jpg

3 functionalization
3. Functionalization
  • Intentional bonding of atoms or molecules to nanoparticles to change the properties of the nanoparticles
  • Desired product properties preserved, but hazard is reduced
  • Biomedical applications of nanotechnology – need to be able to excrete nanoparticles after use instead of them accumulating in the body
  • Can be accomplished by changing the solubility of the particle

http://www.ifm.liu.se/compchem/research/pics/Gd2O3.gif

  • Morose, Gregory. "The 5 principles of ‘‘Design for Safer Nanotechnology’’." Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010): 285-89. Web. 22 Feb. 2010.
4 encapsulation
4. Encapsulation
  • Completely enclose a nanoparticle in another nonhazardous material
  • Can prevent a toxic material from releasing before appropriate times
    • For example, in cancer treatment, potent medicine is encapsulated to make sure that it does not affect non-cancerous cells
  • Morose, Gregory. "The 5 principles of ‘‘Design for Safer Nanotechnology’’." Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010): 285-89. Web. 22 Feb. 2010.

http://www.entertainingcode.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/encapsulation.jpg

5 reduce the quantity
5. Reduce the Quantity
  • If the above four principles can not be applied, reducing the quantity of the hazardous material will reduce the total hazard presented
  • For example, the amount of mercury in fluorescent light bulbs greatly reduced through design engineering
  • Morose, Gregory. "The 5 principles of ‘‘Design for Safer Nanotechnology’’." Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010): 285-89. Web. 22 Feb. 2010.

http://www.cpbn.org/files/images/CFL_Lamps_Image.img_assist_custom.jpg

applications
Applications
  • Concern of nanoparticles harming human health
    • One such concern is in the lungs: fiber length can result in incomplete or frustrated phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages
    • Redox activity can cause large amount of reactive oxygen species, which can damage lipids and DNA
  • Can reduce the adverse effects carbon nanotubes
    • Through changing the size, surface,

and functionalization of the nanotube

  • Morose, Gregory. "The 5 principles of ‘‘Design for Safer Nanotechnology’’." Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010): 285-89. Web. 22 Feb. 2010.

http://mrbarlow.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/carbon-nanotube.jpg

conclusions
Conclusions
  • More research needs to be done to individual products to ensure that the five design principles for safer nanotechnology can be fully applied
  • Lack of comprehensive data for product hazard, performance and exposure potential for different sizes, shapes, and surfaces of nanoparticles.
  • Morose, Gregory. "The 5 principles of ‘‘Design for Safer Nanotechnology’’." Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010): 285-89. Web. 22 Feb. 2010.
introduction14
Introduction
  • Nanotechnology:
    • Involves the manufacture, processing, and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanometer scale
  • Many new nanoparticle (NP) products have been released into the market
  • Potential (eco)toxicological effects and impacts of NPs have received little attention

http://www.treehugger.com/files/2007/05/nanotech_environment.php

introduction15
Introduction
  • Need to generate a better understanding of negative impacts that NPs may have on:
    • Biological systems
    • Environment in normal exposure
    • Environment in the event of unintended releases
    • Little is known about the environmental or industrial health and safety of nanoparticles

http://www.insitupm.co.uk/images/quality&environment.jpg

slide16
EHS
  • Environment, health, and safety (EHS)
  • EHS concerns businesses venturing into nanotechnology
  • Potential Concerns
    • Exposure through dermal penetration and/or inhalation
    • Translocation through bloodstream
    • Accumulation in various organs
    • Penetration through cell membranes

http://singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/nanotechnology.jpg

Monica, John and CalsterGeert van. “A Nanotechnology Legal Framework.” 2010.

slide17
EHS
  • Inhalation Research
    • Some particles traverse epithelial and endothelial cells to reach the blood and lymph circulation
    • This carries them to potentially sensitive sites:
      • Bone marrow
      • Lymph nodes
      • Spleen
      • Heart
      • Central nervous system

Schmidt, Charles W. “Nanotechnology- Related Environment, Health, and Safety Research. April 2009.

http://www.topnews.in/files/nanotechnology_0.jpg

the right dose
The Right Dose
  • Dose is linked to the “amount of material” involved in exposure
  • Linked typically to “mass”
  • Nanoparticles – large surface area to mass ratio – increased surface reactivity
  • Debate about whether the correct metric should be particle number or surface area

Savolainen, Kai. “Safety of engineered nanomaterials and emerging nanotechnologies – do we know enough to allow us to make reliable judgements?” 2009.

http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/idepc/dtopics/stds/images/syringe.jpg

challenges
Challenges

http://www.turbosquid.com/3d-models/nanotube-tube-3d-model/214104

  • Currently 50,000 different types of carbon nanotubes – uses include:
    • Raw materials
    • Production Processes
    • Catalysts
  • Providing reliable data for safety and risk assessment is an immense task
  • Assessing the toxicity and risk of these materials is well beyond available resources

http://image.spreadshirt.net/image-server/image/composition/16269107/view/1/producttypecolor/2/type/png/width/280/height/280

Savolainen, Kai. “Safety of engineered nanomaterials and emerging nanotechnologies – do we know enough to allow us to make reliable judgements?” 2009.

challenges20
Challenges
  • Characterization of NPs and understanding the association between these characteristics and their toxic effects
  • Defining ports of entry and translocation of these materials within the body
  • Defining the critical target organs of NPs and understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of these materials
  • Providing reliable and affordable means for assessment of exposure to NPs in different environments

Savolainen, Kai. “Safety of engineered nanomaterials and emerging nanotechnologies – do we know enough to allow us to make reliable judgements?” 2009.

laws and regulations
Laws and Regulations
  • Nano-Product Legal Life Cycle
    • Supply
    • Manufacturing
    • Intermediate use
    • Consumer
    • End-of-life disposal
  • Need regulations in all areas

Monica, John and CalsterGeert van. “A Nanotechnology Legal Framework.” 2010.

legal issues
Legal Issues
  • Risk can be mitigated once the liability is established in these areas:
    • Intellectual Property
    • Workplace and occupational liability
    • Commercial and contractual liability
    • Government regulation
    • Product and tort liability

http://www.commercialcleaningincharlotte.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/05/osha-logosvg.png

Monica, John and CalsterGeert van. “A Nanotechnology Legal Framework.” 2010.

niosh
NIOSH
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
    • Recognizes that airborne or “free” nanoparticles present the greatest exposure risks.
    • Performs research on how to best protect workers
    • Engineered nanoscale material’s fundamental toxicity characteristics differ from their bulk counterparts

Monica, John and CalsterGeert van. “A Nanotechnology Legal Framework.” 2010.

niosh s recommendations
NIOSH’s Recommendations
  • Employ interim occupational exposure measures
  • Limit exposure to nanoscale materials in the gaseous phases or powders
  • Monitor amount of material, duration of use, and particle size
  • Prevent consumption of food and beverages in the nano-workplace
  • Use traditional environmental engineering controls

http://www.adm.uwaterloo.ca/infohs/whmis/ppe_symbols.html

Monica, John and CalsterGeert van. “A Nanotechnology Legal Framework.” 2010.

further research
Further Research
  • Instrumentation, metrology, and analytical methods
  • Nanomaterials and human health
  • Nanomaterials and the environment
  • Human and environmental exposure assessment
  • Risk management Methods

http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine/Gallery/Images/nanobots.jpg

http://www.nextscience.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/nanoparticles.jpg

conclusions26
Conclusions
  • Nanomaterials will be produced at ever-increasing quantities, and public and environmental exposures will rise commensurately
  • Little is known about the health aspects regarding nanotechnology and a few areas to consider before production are:
    • Occupational Safety
    • Consumer Safety
    • Environment

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_TZ4zYEBSw1I/RcD5FpxxkRI/AAAAAAAAAmM/wjwsMnnYOE8/s1600/nano_hazard.jpg

Schmidt, Charles W. “Nanotechnology- Related Environment, Health, and Safety Research. April 2009.

the evolution of risk perceptions about nanotechnology
The evolution of risk perceptions about nanotechnology

Part III

Michael A Cacciatore, Dietram A. Scheufele, and Elizabeth A. Corley - "From Enabling Technology to Applications: The Evolution of Risk Perceptions about Nanotechnology." Sage Publications (2009).

http://www.inbt.jhu.edu/images/newsimages/lung_image.gif

risk perception studies
Risk Perception Studies
  • Primarily, risk and benefit perceptions of the public have been measured in a broad sense.
    • This was suitable for when nanotechnology first came about.
    • This method however does not account for perceptions of nanotechnology for the specific applications that have emerged.

http://www.urenco.com/uploads/images/safety%20sign.JPG

Cacciatore, Michael A., Dietram A. Scheufele, and Elizabeth A. Corley. "From Enabling Technology to Applications: The Evolution of Risk Perceptions about Nanotechnology." Sage Publications (2009).

the nano debate
The Nano Debate
  • Despite its seemingly unlimited potential, and an estimated market of $3.1 trillion for nanotechnology based products by 2015, there is some controversy surrounding nanotechnology.
    • Studies have began to examine the effects of fullerenes (spherical carbon atoms ) on fish, microorganisms, and human liver cells.
    • Carbon nanotubes have also been linked to inflammation in the human lungs.

Cacciatore, Michael A., Dietram A. Scheufele, and Elizabeth A. Corley. "From Enabling Technology to Applications: The Evolution of Risk Perceptions about Nanotechnology." Sage Publications (2009).

http://www.electronicsunset.org/sites/electronicsunset.org/files/images/nano8.img_assist_custom.jpg

opinion formation
Opinion Formation
  • Mental Associations
    • When asked about nanotechnology what mental associations does a specific person make?
      • How does this effect their perception of nanotechnology.
    • Will someone who associates nanotechnology to the medical field have a different view then someone who associates it with the military applications?

Cacciatore, Michael A., Dietram A. Scheufele, and Elizabeth A. Corley. "From Enabling Technology to Applications: The Evolution of Risk Perceptions about Nanotechnology." Sage Publications (2009).

http://images.google.com/images?um=1&hl=en&tbs=isch%3A1&sa=1&q=human+brain&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=&oq=&start=0

opinion formation31
Opinion formation
  • Ideological values
    • It has been shown that religious and cultural beliefs have a strong effect on their perception of an technology.
    • What effect does a persons religious strength have on their view of nanotechnology?
    • How do political views affect peoples perception?

Cacciatore, Michael A., Dietram A. Scheufele, and Elizabeth A. Corley. "From Enabling Technology to Applications: The Evolution of Risk Perceptions about Nanotechnology." Sage Publications (2009).

http://www.psychologytoday.com/files/u589/World_Religion.gif

opinion formation32
Opinion formation
  • News and Media
    • News and media has been shown to have a key role in shaping public perceptions.
    • How does the amount of science media effect a persons perception of nanotechnology?

http://www.johnehrenfeld.com/careful-scientist.gif

http://img.webring.com/r/n/news/logo

Cacciatore, Michael A., Dietram A. Scheufele, and Elizabeth A. Corley. "From Enabling Technology to Applications: The Evolution of Risk Perceptions about Nanotechnology." Sage Publications (2009).

methodology
Methodology
  • To find the answers to these questions
    • A random survey of 1,015 people
    • The questions were randomized for each participant
    • Things such as education level, attention to science media, and religious intensity were rated on a ten point scale
    • Significant effort was made for call backs of refusals to eliminate bias.

http://www.arb.ca.gov/ports/cargo/images/clipboard.jpg

Cacciatore, Michael A., Dietram A. Scheufele, and Elizabeth A. Corley. "From Enabling Technology to Applications: The Evolution of Risk Perceptions about Nanotechnology." Sage Publications (2009).

results
Results
  • The survey showed:
    • That more educated people were more likely to support nanotechnology.
    • That religious intensity didn’t effect a persons support for nanotechnology.
    • That liberals are more likely to express support for nanotechnology than conservatives.
    • That the more a person pays attention to science television programs, the more likely they are to support nanotechnology.
    • That a person’s mental association of nanotechnology did effect their risk perceptions -biggest variance being in the medical field

http://nwbacreditrestoration.com/images/results.JPG

Cacciatore, Michael A., Dietram A. Scheufele, and Elizabeth A. Corley. "From Enabling Technology to Applications: The Evolution of Risk Perceptions about Nanotechnology." Sage Publications (2009).

results support for nanotechnology
Results – Support for Nanotechnology

Cacciatore, Michael A., Dietram A. Scheufele, and Elizabeth A. Corley. "From Enabling Technology to Applications: The Evolution of Risk Perceptions about Nanotechnology." Sage Publications (2009).

results usefulness of nanotechnology
Results – Usefulness of Nanotechnology

Cacciatore, Michael A., Dietram A. Scheufele, and Elizabeth A. Corley. "From Enabling Technology to Applications: The Evolution of Risk Perceptions about Nanotechnology." Sage Publications (2009).

further research37
Further Research
  • Further research needs to be conducted to show if the public’s perception can change
    • Would it change if nanotechnology helped in a major breakthrough – such as a cure for cancer?
  • Also would like to know if educational materials on nanotechnology would improve public opinion
    • Television commercials, brochures, public messages, school books, etc
  • Would nanotechnology become more accepting in the future because it will be heard of more or around for longer?

http://www.kyb.mpg.de/de/ernstgroup/learning_logo.jpg

references
References
  • Cacciatore, Michael A., Dietram A. Scheufele, and Elizabeth A. Corley. "From Enabling Technology to Applications: The Evolution of Risk Perceptions about Nanotechnology." Sage Publications (2009). Sage. 9 Oct. 2009. Web. 2 Mar. 2010. <http://pus.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/0963662509347815v1>.
  • Morose, Gregory. "The 5 principles of ‘‘Design for Safer Nanotechnology’’." Journal of Cleaner Production 18 (2010): 285-89. Web. 22 Feb. 2010.
  • Monica, John and CalsterGeert van. “A Nanotechnology Legal Framework.” 2010
  • Savolainen, Kai. “Safety of engineered nanomaterials and emerging nanotechnologies – do we know enough to allow us to make reliable judgements?” 2009.
  • Schmidt, Charles W. “Nanotechnology- Related Environment, Health, and Safety Research. April 2009.
  • Bouwmeester, Hans, et. al. “Review of health safety aspects of nanotechnologies in food production.” 2008.
  • Fairbrother, Anne, et. al. “Are environmental regulations keeping up with innovation? A case study of the nanotechnology industry.” 2009.