Safe Sandwich Making Retail Meat & Poultry Processing Training Modules
Produced under a Cooperative Agreement from the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Developed by: Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Dairy and Food Inspection Division Hennepin County Environmental Health Minnesota Department of Health University of Minnesota Extension Service September 2004
Sandwich Types Sandwich Safety Concerns Bare Hand Food Contact Alternatives Hand washing Steps Single-Use Glove Avoid Cross Contamination Temperature control—cold & hot Cooling Methods 5 Steps to Effective Cleaning Storing Wiping Cloths Washing Raw Produce Listeria Control Self-Service Sandwich Items Packaging & Labeling Requirements Safe Vending Storage Topics
Learning Objectives • Identify personal hygiene practices that prevent foodborne illness. • List alternatives to bare hand contact with ready-to-eat food. • List 3 ways to prevent cross-contamination. • Recite cold holding and hot holding temperature requirements. • Explain the difference between cleaning and sanitizing. • Apply food safety practices to make sandwiches safely.
Sandwich Types Cooked Ready-to-Eat (RTE)
Sandwich Safety Concerns • Ready-to-eat sandwiches will not have a cook step or a “kill step.” • Making sandwiches may involve bare hand contact by the food handler. • Ingredients may include raw produce such as lettuce, sprouts and tomatoes which may carry disease causing organisms.
Bare Hand Food Contact • Eliminate use of bare hands where possible when handling ingredients. • Effective hand washing is essential when bare hands are used to handle ingredients. • Glove use is one option to avoid bare hand contact with food. What are other options?
Hand Washing Steps • Wet hands using warm water. • Apply soap. • Work up a soapy lather. • Rub lathered hands together for 20 seconds. • With fingernail brush, work lather under fingernails. • Rinse well and dry with single-use towel.
Single-use Gloves • Never reuse gloves. • Always change gloves between handling raw foods and cooked or ready-to-eat foods. • When do you need to change your gloves? • Change gloves hourly when doing the same task.
Hand washing with Single-use Gloves • Wash hands before and after wearing gloves. • Wash hands when changing to a new pair of gloves. • Sufficient time is always needed for effective hand washing.
Avoid Cross Contamination • Improper storage of ingredients can result in contamination. • Store ready-to-eat ingredients separate from raw ingredients. • Cover ready-to-eat ingredients properly.
Raw Versus Ready-to-Eat • Use separate cutting boards for raw food and ready-to-eat ingredients. Why? • Use clean and sanitized equipment for each different task.
Temperature Control • Keep hot foods hot and keep cold foods cold to control microorganism growth. • Pre-chilling of ingredients is a key to temperature control during some sandwich making.
Cold Holding Temperature • If you are “cold holding” a sandwich ingredient, it must be stored at 41º F or below.
Hot Holding Temperature If you are “hot holding” a sandwich ingredient, it must be held at 140º F or above.
Cooling Requirements Cooked foods must be cooled: • To 70°F or lower in 2 hours. AND • From 70°F to 41°F or below in 4 more hours.
Cooling Requirements • Foods at room temperature must be cooled to: • 41°F or below within 4 hours. • In summary, different handling processes may require different cooling processes.
Cooling Methods • Shallow pans • Separate Foods • Rapid cooling • Ice Baths • Addition of ice • Other effective means: • Loosely cover or uncovered if protected from overhead contamination
Cleaning Food Contact Surfaces • Clean and sanitize slicers, choppers, and other equipment after each use, before next use. • Cleaning and sanitizing is required between raw animal species.
5 Steps to Effective Cleaning • Pre-clean • Wash • Rinse • Sanitize • Air dry
Cleaning Ingredient Storage Areas • It is important to clean sandwich ingredient storage areas such as: • Full service display cases • Refrigeration areas • Self service display cases
Cleaning Packaging Equipment • Properly clean and sanitize packaging equipment and packaging areas. • Properly store all packaging materials to protect from contamination.
Storing Cleaned Equipment • Store cleaned and sanitized equipment so surfaces are protected. • Avoid storing already cleaned and sanitized items where they may get recontaminated.
Wiping Cloths • Store wiping cloths in properly mixed chemical sanitizer when not in use. • Store wiping cloths and sanitizer in properly labeled containers when not in use. • Change sanitizer in container when necessary.
Sandwiches with Raw Produce • Fresh produce must be thoroughly washed in water to reduce contaminants before use. • Use a clean produce sink for this step.
Raw Produce Washing • If chemicals are used in the washing step, the final step must be a rinse with water to remove residues as much as possible.
Pre-washed Produce Ingredients • Pre-washed produce must be prepared and stored safely
Fresh Ingredients • Do not exceed the manufacturer’s use-by-date for each ingredient such as ready-to-eat deli meats. • Do not combine “old” sandwich items with “new” ones. • Some prepared sandwich items held more than 24 hours, may require date marking.
Transportation • Properly protect sandwiches while being transported to prevent any environmental contamination. • Provide proper temperature control for sandwiches while in transport.
Listeria Concerns • 95% of individuals who are infected with Listeria monocytogenes are hospitalized • This disease is the leading cause of death from a foodborne illness
Listeria Control in Sandwich Making • Listeria is a microorganism that is associated with ready-to-eat sandwich ingredients. • Clean and sanitize to eliminate Listeria.
Listeria Controls • Effective and frequent cleaning process. • Cleaning “Flow” • Effective sanitizer use. • Safe product storage.
Environmental Sources of Listeria • Contaminated equipment • Raw product and ingredients • Air • Water • Sewage • Pests • People • Dirt/soil
Facility Sources of Listeria • Floors • Drains • Moisture from cooling units • Cleaning Tools • Walls • Ceilings • Hollow equipment parts • Slicers/Dicers • Underside of conveyors
More Facility Sources of Listeria • Knives/Holders • Air ducts • Refrigerated areas • Wooden Pallets • Cracks in storage equipment • Movable equipment • Maintenance tools
Self-Service Sandwich Displays • Food handlers should minimize bare hand contact with ready-to-eat food. • Instruct consumers to use utensils provided for handling condiments by posting signs.
Self-Service Sandwich Condiments • Monitor temperatures of condiment display units. • Condiments such as ketchup may be individual packages. • Bulk ingredients must be filled and dispensed to prevent contamination.
Cleaning Self Service Sandwich Displays • Clean and sanitize at least every 4 hours: • Utensils • Tongs • Food contact surfaces—counter tops, cutting boards • What else?
Consumer Reheat of Sandwiches • Clean and sanitize microwave as needed. • Make sure sandwich labels include proper reheat instructions.
Labeling Prepackaged Sandwiches • Product identity • Complete ingredients and possibly nutrition facts • Address information of manufacturer • Net weight
Labeling Prepackaged Sandwiches Continued • Quality assurance dating for the consumer and for proper rotation with prepackaged product. • Lot coding/production dates for recall purposes. • Consumer reheat instructions for immediate consumption if applicable.
Safe Vending Storage • Good sanitation and servicing practices are key to safe products. • When loading, keep product out of refrigerator for as short a time as possible. • Rotate product so that quality assurance dates are not exceeded.
Vending Storage of Sandwiches • Machine must have easily readable thermometers. • Maintain cold foods at 41°F or below and hot foods at 140°F or above. • Some machines may have automatic shutoff.
General Vending • Condiments—individual or dispensers. • All food must be properly labeled. • Only a properly working machine can vend a safe product.
Summary for Safety • Ready-to-Eat (RTE) sandwiches do not have a “kill step” or a cook step. • 5 step cleaning process of equipment is needed for thorough cleaning. • Controls includes effective employee hygiene, safe use of single-use gloves and safe ingredient storage. • The food handling process must controlmicroorganisms such as Listeria.
Wrap-Up • Do you have any questions? • What information was new? • How will you apply what you learned today? • Posttest