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Chapter 3 Consumer Learning Starts Here: Perception. Learning Outcomes. Define learning and perception and how the two are connected List and define phases of the consumer perception process Apply the concept of the JND Contrast the concepts of implicit and explicit memory

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Chapter 3 consumer learning starts here perception

Chapter 3 Consumer Learning Starts Here: Perception

Learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes

  • Define learning and perception and how the two are connected

  • List and define phases of the consumer perception process

  • Apply the concept of the JND

  • Contrast the concepts of implicit and explicit memory

  • Know ways to help get a consumer’s attention

  • Understand key differences between intentional and unintentional learning

Defining learning and perception
Defining Learning and Perception

  • Learning - A change in behavior resulting from the interaction between a person and a stimulus

    • Value involves learning, and consumer learning begins with perception

    • Learning can be intentional or unintentional

  • Perception - A consumer’s awareness and interpretation of reality

Elements of consumer perception
Elements of Consumer Perception

  • Exposure

    • The process of bringing some stimulus within the proximity of a consumer so that it can be sensed by one of the five human senses

  • Attention

    • The purposeful allocation of information-processing capacity toward developing an understanding of some stimulus

  • Comprehension

    • When consumers attempt to derive meaning from information they receive

Consumer perception process
Consumer Perception Process

  • Sensing

  • Organizing - Possible reactions

    • Assimilation

    • Accommodation

  • Contrast

    • Reacting

Selective perception
Selective Perception

  • Selective exposure - Involves screening out most stimuli and exposing oneself to only a small portion of stimuli

  • Selective attention - Involves paying attention to only certain stimuli

  • Selective distortion - A process by which consumers interpret information in ways that are biased by their previously held beliefs

Subliminal processing
Subliminal Processing

  • The way in which the human brain senses low-strength stimuli

    • Stimuli that occur below the level of conscious awareness

  • Subliminal persuasion - Behavior change induced or brought about based on subliminally processing a message

Applying the jnd concept
Applying the JND Concept

  • Just noticeable difference (JND) - Represents how much stronger one stimulus has to be relative to another so that someone can notice that the two are not the same

  • Weber’s Law - The ability to detect differences between two levels of a stimulus is affected by the original intensity of the stimulus

Applying the jnd concept1
Applying the JND Concept

  • JND - Marketing implications

    • Pricing

    • Quantity

    • Quality

    • Add-on purchases

  • Just meaningful difference - Represents the smallest amount of change in a stimulus that would influence consumer consumption and choice

Implicit and explicit memory
Implicit and Explicit Memory

  • Explicit memory - Memory for information one is exposed to, attends to, and applies effort to remember

  • Implicit memory - Represents stored information concerning stimuli one is exposed to but does not pay attention to

    • Creates preattentive effects

Mere exposure effect
Mere Exposure Effect

  • Represents another way that consumers can learn unintentionally

  • Relevant points:

    • Preattentive

    • Easy to elicit

    • Greatest effect on novel objects

    • Weak effect

    • Best when consumer has lower involvement


  • The purposeful allocation of cognitive capacity toward understanding some stimulus

  • Involuntary attention - Attention beyond the conscious control of the consumer and occurs as the result of a surprising or novel stimuli

    • Orientation reflex - A natural reflex that occurs as a response to a threat

Factors that get attention
Factors That Get Attention

  • Intensity of stimuli

  • Contrast

  • Movement

  • Surprising stimuli

  • Size of stimuli

  • Involvement

Intentional and unintentional learning
Intentional and Unintentional Learning

  • Intentional learning - Consumers set out to specifically learn information devoted to a certain subject

  • Unintentional learning - Consumers simply sense and react (or respond) to the environment

Learning theories
Learning Theories

  • Behaviorist approach to learning - Because the brain is a “black box,” the focus of inquiry should be on the behavior itself

  • Information processing perspective - The focus is on the cognitive processes associated with comprehension, including that leading to consumer learning

Unintentional learning
Unintentional Learning

  • Classical conditioning - A change in behavior that occurs simply through associating some stimulus with another stimulus that naturally causes a reaction

  • Instrumental conditioning - Behavior is conditioned through reinforcement

Shaping behavior
Shaping Behavior

  • Shaping is a process through which the desired behavior is altered over time, in small increments

  • Not all reinforcement is positive

    • Negative reinforcement refers to the removal of bad stimuli as a way of encouraging behavior

  • Punishers represent stimuli that decrease the likelihood that a behavior will occur again