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The Wilmot Proviso. 1846, Rep (PA) David Wilmot attached amendment to military spending bill The amendment had nothing to do with military spending, Is that okay? Amendment proposed to prohibit slavery in all territories ceded by Mexico Which territories are we speaking about?

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The wilmot proviso
The Wilmot Proviso

  • 1846, Rep (PA) David Wilmot attached amendment to military spending bill

    • The amendment had nothing to do with military spending, Is that okay?

  • Amendment proposed to prohibit slavery in all territories ceded by Mexico

    • Which territories are we speaking about?

    • North’s reaction? South reaction?

  • Why did it pass in House? Why not in Senate? Pair-Share

  • Sen. Lewis Cass (MI) proposes compromise-Popular Sovereignty; Pros and cons of Popular Sovereignty?

  • Congress fails to pass, so becomes issue in 1848 Election

The election of 1848
The Election of 1848

  • The Candidates

    • Whig Zachary Taylor

    • Free-Soiler Martin Van Buren

    • Democrat Lewis Cass

  • The candidates did not want to take an affirmative stance on slavery issue

    • Why?

    • How is slavery issue similar to abortion issue today?

  • Whigs win and Free-Soilers lose badly as they fail to carry any Electoral Votes

The gold rush of 1849
The Gold Rush of 1849

  • Gold discovered in CA in 1848

  • Inspirational Devotional reading on Gold Rush

  • People from all over world descend upon CA

    • Population swells, San Francisco grows into sin city

  • Discrimination and racism

  • Taylor has free-soil agenda and wants CA and other territories to apply for statehood ASAP

  • CA against slavery (not morally, but competition)

  • CA applies for statehood as free state

  • South upset-WHY?

The compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850

  • 5 Major SECTIONALIST Issues that Divide North & South

    • 1. California, free or slave?

    • 2. Texas (slave state) border dispute with NM (undecided); why important?

    • 3. North wants abolition in Washington, D.C. WHY?

    • 4. South wants North to enforce Fugitive Slave Act of 1793

    • 5. Utah and New Mexico territories to become free or slave?

  • Compromise of 1850

    • Proposed by Henry Clay to prevent the South from seceding from the Union; he wanted to preserve the Union

    • “Great Compromiser”; saved the Union 3 times


Zachary taylor millard fillmore
Zachary Taylor & Millard Fillmore

  • Taylor from South & owned slaves, but only moderate stance as to slavery; supported CA as free state

  • dies suspiciously 1st year of 1st term


  • Who would want Taylor dead? Why? Political motives?

  • His VP Millard Fillmore take over

    • Fillmore pushes Compromise through with help of “Little Giant” Stephen A. Douglas of IL

    • Douglass proposed each provision individually instead of as a package; explain why this was successful.

The fugitive slave act
The Fugitive Slave Act

  • Most controversial part of Compromise of 1850

  • Webster caught hell back in MA for his support of Comp.

  • Where did runaways have to flee to escape law’s reach? Why?

  • Federal Commissioner (Duties and Conflict of Interest)

  • Due Process?

    • Could not testify, no counsel, no public trial-WHY IMPORT?

    • Affidavit of owner-OPEN TO CORRUPTION? WHY? HOW?

  • Northern states respond with Personal Liberty Laws

    • Right to counsel & public trial; draw out proceedings

    • What about federalism and the Supremacy Clause?

Uncle tom s cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  • Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1852 (later a play)

  • Fanned the fires of sectionalism by rallying Northern abolitionists; portrayed slaves as “people” not property

  • No firsthand knowledge of slavery; relied accounts of her abolitionist friends

  • Bestselling novel of the 19th Century; melodramatic

  • South called it an unfair characterization and slanderous

  • Slave owners depicted as both good and evil

  • Connection to Beloved and the Margaret Garner story

Stephen a douglas the little giant
Stephen A. Douglas (“The Little Giant”)

  • Dem. Sen. from IL; got Comp. of 1850 thru Congress

  • The “Little Giant”

  • 2 Main Political Goals

    • Expansion (supported War with Mexico; Lincoln did not)

    • Popular Sovereignty on slavery issue

  • Dems slight him in favor of Franklin Pierce who beats Whig “Old Fuss and Feathers” Winfield Scott in 1852

  • Wanted R.R. from Chicago to San Fran (his real estate)

    • He needs to promote settlement of Nebraska Territory

    • What about the Gadsden Purchase?

Kansas nebraska act of 1854
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854

  • Pierce very weak and sectionalism tearing nation apart

    • How does a weak leader make this situation worse?

    • Would Jackson have done a better job? Leadership styles?

  • Provisions of Douglas’ bill

    • Spilt Neb. Terr. In 2 (Neb. & Kan)

    • Popular Sovereignty to both on slavery issue

    • What did Douglas think final result would be?

    • How will it make matters worse?

  • Pierce signs it; Violate the Missouri Compromise? How?

  • South’s reaction? North’s reaction? THINK-PAIR-SHARE

  • Country is dangerously close to Civil War

The whigs
The Whigs

  • Slavery splits the party in two

    • Southern Whigs

      • No support for Winfield Scott in 1852

      • Backed the Compromise of 1850 because it allowed them to be both pro-slavery and pro-union; EXPLAIN!

    • Northern Whigs

      • Support for Winfield Scott in 1852

      • Strongly opposed to the Fugitive Slave Act, so also opposed to the Compromise of 1850

  • South lack of support-Scott loses to Pierce in 1852

  • Sectionalism eventually destroys the party, and its members join other parties

  • The democrats
    The Democrats

    • What were they called before 1840?

    • Strong support for state rights and limit federal power

    • Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Jackson, and Polk

    • National party, but dominated by SOUTH-WHY?

    • Dem. James Buchanan wins in 1856 b/c nat’l support

      • Northerner but support came from the South (many friends)

    • What does it mean to be a national candidate?

    The free soilers
    The Free-Soilers

    • Opposed extension of slavery into the territories, but not necessarily abolition

      • What is the difference? Why is the difference important?-Think-Pair-Share

    • Concerned mainly with labor issues; did not want the spread of the slavery into the North because it would take away jobs

      • HOW?

    The know nothings
    The Know-Nothings

    • A.K.A. the “American Party”-story of name

    • Why the response? Why membership not ever grow large?

    • NATIVISM-main platform

    • Middle-class Protestants who feared the “hordes” of Catholic immigrants (like the Irish) coming to US

      • Fear of Pope gaining eventual control of U.S. government

    • Immigrants backed Democrats

    • Party splits in 1856

      • Northern back Rep. John C. Fremont

      • Southern back Millard Fillmore

    The republicans
    The Republicans

    • 1854-N. Whigs, anti-slavery Dems and Free-Soilers

      • Why were called the “Big Tent Party”?

    • Platform-stop spread of slavery (e.g., Kan-Neb Act)

      • Why? Would an abolitionist join the party?

    • Full spectrum-from radical to conservative

      • Pros and cons of having this wide range of support?

    • Main competition was Know-Nothings

    • Support after “Bleeding Kansas” and “Bleeding Sumner”

    • Supported John C. Fremont in the 1856 election

      • Pathfinder and Mexican War hero

    The election of 1856
    The Election of 1856

    • Dem strategy- “northern man with southern principles”

    • Buchanan (true nat’l candidate) crushes Fremont

    • What would have happened if Fremont won? Why? When did it eventually happen?

    • 3 Lessons learned from the election

      • Dems could win with a nat’l candidate

      • Know-Nothings in decline b/c slavery

      • Republicans were a growing force in the North

    Bleeding kansas
    Bleeding Kansas

    • Kan-Neb Act of 1854 gives Kansas pop. sov. on slavery

    • Free-soilers and slave supporters wanted Kan.-WHY?

    • 1854 Election-MO Border Ruffians corrupt the vote

    • Pro-slavery gov’t wins and set up capital at Lecompton

    • Free-soilers don’t recognize it; set up capital at Topeka

      • Dangers of two capitals?

    • Pro-slavery and anti-slavery towns and settlements

    • Sack of Lawrence

      • Pro-slavery town grand jury indictment of entire Lawrence

      • Pro-slavery posse and destruction; Why destroy presses?

    John brown pottawatomie massacre
    John Brown & Pottawatomie Massacre

    • John Brown-abolitionist, God told him end slavery

      • Firm believer in racial equality

    • Rumor that 5 abolitionists killed at Lawrence; revenge

    • Night raid of pro-slavery town Pottawatomie Creek

    • 5 men-hands cut off, hacked to death w/ broad sword

      • Terrorist or hero?THINK-PAIR-SHARE

    • Act triggers acts of violence across Kansas- “bleeding”

      • 200 deaths result

    Violence on the senate floor
    Violence on the Senate Floor

    • Heated debates in Senate over events in Kansas & slavery

    • Sen. Charles Sumner (MA) multiple speeches, and in one personally attacks Sen. Andrew Butler (SC)-not cool!

    • Rep. Preston Brooks (SC) seeks out Sumner to maintain family and South’s honor

    • Brooks canes Sumner over head repeatedly; breaks cane

    • Rep. Laurence M. Keitt (SC) blocks way with pistol

    • Sumner suffers head injury & PTS disorder (3 years)

    • How did the South view this incident?

    • How did the North view this incident?

    Dred scott v sanford 1857
    Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)

    • Facts of the case and Dred Scott’s (slave) claim

      • Visits Wisconsin Territory(free)-north of MO Compromise

      • Returns to MO (slave state); master dies; lawsuit

    • Issue: Congress outlaw slavery in territories?

    • Holding: Scott loses, stays a slave

      • CJ Taney wrote decision (slave owner, but did not like it)

      • Blacks not citizens, so Scott did not have standing to sue

      • Home state laws apply-MO is slave, so Scott stays one

      • Residence in free territory did not matter because MO Comp. unconst. (Congress cannot outlaw slavery in terr.)

      • 5th Amendment Due Process Clause argument

    The lecompton constitution
    The Lecompton Constitution

    • Pro-slavery gov’t at Lecompton draft state const. for KS

    • Most of state pop. are Free-Soilers;

      • They vote down the constitution

    • Pres. Buchanan recognizes the const.-WHY?

    • Why does Stephen Douglas publically disagree with fellow Democrat Buchanan? Is this political suicide?

    • 1857, voters in KS vote const. once again, yet the pro-slavery gov’t is recognized by the federal gov’t

    Honest abe lincoln
    Honest Abe Lincoln

    • Born in KY, 1809; successful lawyer

    • 1846, Whig elected to Congress (1 term)

    • Becomes Republican in 1855 after Kan-Neb Act

    • Felt slavery wrong, but compassionate to slave owner

    • White supremacist view like 99% of population

    • Colony policy up through his 1st term as president

    • “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”

    • Wanted to stop spread of slavery b/c felt that would stifle westward expansion and “American Dream”

    Lincoln douglas debates
    Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    • 1858 IL Senate Race

    • 7 Debates

    • 2 distinct personages

    • Neither wanted slavery in territories and neither wanted it abolished

    • Both point the finger

    • Freeport Doctrine

      • Lincoln’s question

      • Douglas’ reply

      • Douglas kills his chance in 1860 as Dem national candidate

    John brown s raid on harper s ferry
    John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry

    • Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, VA (present-day WV)

    • John Brown leads band and take arsenal

    • Plan-distribute weapons to slaves and start rebellion that would spread throughout the South

    • No slaves showed up, but Lee and the Marines did

    • Murder, treason, slave rebellion-hanged

    • Thoreau and Emerson (“Courage”)

    • At first Northerners condemned his acts, but eventually started to be seen as a Christian hero, martyr

    Election of 1860
    Election of 1860

    • Douglas could have been the perfect candidate, but…

    • Republicans-Chicago Convention nominate Lincoln

      • Lincoln’s moderate views won him the day

      • South did not believe in these promises; famous quote

      • Lincoln wins-carries North but not one Southern state

      • Carries North and wins election-WHY?

    • Southern Democrats-John Breckinridge (wins South)

    • Constitutional Union-John Bell (VA, TN, KY)

    • North. Democrats-Stephen Douglas (MO, part of NJ)

    • Lincoln wins and did not carry majority of popular vote-Does that matter? Should it matter?PAIR-SHARE

    The secession crisis
    The Secession Crisis

    • Dec. 20, 1860-SC secedes from Union (days after Lincoln announced winner of 1860 Election)

    • Buchanan a “lame duck” and he’s no Andy Jackson!

    • 6 other states follow suit

    • February 4, 1861 create Confederate States of America

    • Constitution

      • Each state “sovereign and independent”-Familiar? Problems?

      • Jefferson Davis (former MS Senator) 1st president

    • What did the South fear in Lincoln and the Republicans?

    • 7 Southern states seceded leaving 8 slave states in the Union and Lincoln has yet to be sworn in