Marcus Garvey Who was he? What was his impact on the “New Negro” movement?
Marcus Garvey’s Rise • Garvey established the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in native Jamaica in 1914. • Two years later, he introduced UNIA to NY • After WWI - UNIA gains wide popularity among African-Americans (particularly new migrants from South)
Why was he so popular? • Garvey insisted “Black” stood for “strength and beauty, not inferiority”- asserted independence from “white society” • He expressed that only real solution for African-Americans was to go “Back to Africa”
In what ways did he demonstrate his ideas? • He organized: “Universal African Legion”, Universal Black Cross Nurses, Universal African Motor Corporation, Black Eagle Flying Corps, Black Star Steamship Line, “Empire of Africa” (‘21) • He claimed 4M followers in 1920 (6M in 1923)
Impact on “New Negro” Movement? • According to John Hope Franklin, “ though few Harlem authors would concede it,….he (Garvey) was one of the great energizers of the “New Negro Movement”. • NAACP and DuBois were critical - “bombastic and impractical”. Criticism was mutual - “NAACP wants us to become white”.
Inglorious Ending? • Garvey was imprisoned in Atlanta for “Mail Fraud” in ‘23 - financing his Black Star Steamship Line • Pardoned by Pres. Coolidge in ‘27 • http://www.marcusgarvey.com/ • site
Background Info - Charles S. Johnson • Born in Bristol, VA • Doctorate from Univ. of Chicago • Served in US Army in WWI (France) • Returned to study and report on Chicago Race Riot (1919) • Became director of National Urban League (NY) • Founded and edited - Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life (‘21) • Became President of Fisk University (‘46)
Charles S. Johnson • What was his interpretation of the “New Negro”?
Background Info - Alain Locke • Born in Philadelphia,PA - went to Central H.S. • Studied Philosophy and graduated from Harvard in 1902 • Became first black Rhodes Scholar at Oxford Univ. in England • Edited Survey Graphic (‘25) and The New Negro (‘25) • Strongly endorsed the Arts (Visual, Drama,etc.) • “Negro drama must grow in its own soil and cultivate its own intrinsic elements; only in this way can it become truly organic, and cease being a rootless derivative.”
Alain Locke • What was his interpretation of the “New Negro”?