WHAT IS A MINERAL? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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WHAT IS A MINERAL?
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WHAT IS A MINERAL?

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  1. WHAT IS A MINERAL? • Naturally occurring • Inorganic • Solid • Crystalline structure • Specific physical and chemical properties

  2. CRYSTALLINE(molecular structure) Amethyst

  3. HOW DO MINERALS AND ROCKS DIFFER? green Olivine mineral in igneous basalt rock clear Quartz mineral

  4. WHAT ARE MINERALS MADE OF? Minerals are made up of atoms of elements HOW MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF MINERALS ARE THERE? There are over 3000+ different types of minerals on Earth – most minerals are “silicate” minerals (made up of silicon & oxygen) WHAT OTHER KINDS OF MINERALS ARE THERE? Carbonates, Sulfides, and Iron Oxides

  5. HOW DO MINERALS FORM? • 2 main ways that new mineral crystals grow: • Some minerals form when molten rockbelow a planet’s surface (magma) or above (lava), coolsand atoms bondtogether into mineral crystals • Other minerals form when water that has atoms of dissolved elements in it, evaporates away-- the atoms get very close to each other and bond together to form solid minerals

  6. HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY MINERALS? • Luster (metallic or non-metallic) • Hardness (hard or soft) • Cleavage / Fracture (way the mineral splits) • Streak (powder color of mineral)

  7. CLEAVAGE

  8. COLOR IS LEAST RELIABLE IDENTIFICATION TEST 3 crystals of quartz mineral show how the same mineral can have different colors!

  9. ESRT – Page 16 KNOW THIS PAGE!!!

  10. Graphite

  11. Galena

  12. Magnetite

  13. Pyrite

  14. Hematite

  15. Talc

  16. Sulfur

  17. Selenite gypsum

  18. Muscovite mica

  19. Halite

  20. Biotite mica

  21. Calcite

  22. Dolomite

  23. Fluorite

  24. Pyroxene (augite)

  25. Amphibole (hornblende)

  26. Potassium feldspar

  27. Plagioclase feldspar

  28. Olivine

  29. Quartz

  30. Garnet

  31. FLUORESCENTMINERALS

  32. WHY DO FLUORSECENT MINERALS GLOW IN THE DARK? Fluorescence is a physical process. For a mineral to fluoresce, ultraviolet (UV) light (electromagnetic radiation) of one wavelength strikes a fluorescent mineral and “activates” it, that causes light to come out of that mineral at another longer wavelength. When those wavelengths reach the “visible spectrum”, we see the different wavelengths as different BRIGHT colors. Fluorite Mineral Electromagnetic Spectrum

  33. Calcite video of time decay of mineral fluorescence