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WHAT IS A MINERAL? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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WHAT IS A MINERAL?. Naturally occurring Inorganic Solid Crystalline structure Specific physical and chemical properties. CRYSTALLINE (molecular structure). Amethyst. HOW DO MINERALS AND ROCKS DIFFER?. green Olivine mineral in igneous basalt rock . clear Quartz mineral .

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WHAT IS A MINERAL?


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. WHAT IS A MINERAL? • Naturally occurring • Inorganic • Solid • Crystalline structure • Specific physical and chemical properties

    2. CRYSTALLINE(molecular structure) Amethyst

    3. HOW DO MINERALS AND ROCKS DIFFER? green Olivine mineral in igneous basalt rock clear Quartz mineral

    4. WHAT ARE MINERALS MADE OF? Minerals are made up of atoms of elements HOW MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF MINERALS ARE THERE? There are over 3000+ different types of minerals on Earth – most minerals are “silicate” minerals (made up of silicon & oxygen) WHAT OTHER KINDS OF MINERALS ARE THERE? Carbonates, Sulfides, and Iron Oxides

    5. HOW DO MINERALS FORM? • 2 main ways that new mineral crystals grow: • Some minerals form when molten rockbelow a planet’s surface (magma) or above (lava), coolsand atoms bondtogether into mineral crystals • Other minerals form when water that has atoms of dissolved elements in it, evaporates away-- the atoms get very close to each other and bond together to form solid minerals

    6. HOW DO YOU IDENTIFY MINERALS? • Luster (metallic or non-metallic) • Hardness (hard or soft) • Cleavage / Fracture (way the mineral splits) • Streak (powder color of mineral)

    7. CLEAVAGE

    8. COLOR IS LEAST RELIABLE IDENTIFICATION TEST 3 crystals of quartz mineral show how the same mineral can have different colors!

    9. ESRT – Page 16 KNOW THIS PAGE!!!

    10. Graphite

    11. Galena

    12. Magnetite

    13. Pyrite

    14. Hematite

    15. Talc

    16. Sulfur

    17. Selenite gypsum

    18. Muscovite mica

    19. Halite

    20. Biotite mica

    21. Calcite

    22. Dolomite

    23. Fluorite

    24. Pyroxene (augite)

    25. Amphibole (hornblende)

    26. Potassium feldspar

    27. Plagioclase feldspar

    28. Olivine

    29. Quartz

    30. Garnet

    31. FLUORESCENTMINERALS

    32. WHY DO FLUORSECENT MINERALS GLOW IN THE DARK? Fluorescence is a physical process. For a mineral to fluoresce, ultraviolet (UV) light (electromagnetic radiation) of one wavelength strikes a fluorescent mineral and “activates” it, that causes light to come out of that mineral at another longer wavelength. When those wavelengths reach the “visible spectrum”, we see the different wavelengths as different BRIGHT colors. Fluorite Mineral Electromagnetic Spectrum

    33. Calcite video of time decay of mineral fluorescence