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What is a Mineral?. Chapter 4.1. Rocks v.s . Minerals 1. A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a crystal structure and a characteristic chemical composition. a. Not man-made. b. Inorganic - not produced by a living thing.

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Rocks v.s. Minerals

1. A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a crystal structure and a characteristic chemical composition.

a. Not man-made.

b. Inorganic - not produced by a living thing.

c. Crystalline - particles arranged in an orderly pattern.

d. Specific chemical formula.

e. Over 3,000 known minerals.

2. A rock is a solid combination of various minerals.

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Question!

What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?

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Properties of Minerals

( Physical Science Text pages 894 – 895 )

1. Crystal Structure

- each type of mineral has a specific crystalline shape.

2. Luster

- the way the surface of the mineral reflects light.

- metallic (shiny)

- nonmetallic (dull, glassy, silky, or earthy)

3. Hardness

- the resistance of a mineral to scratching.

- use Mohs Scale of Hardness

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Mohs Hardness Scale

Field Test for Hardness

Easily scratched by fingernail.

Scratched by copper penny.

Scratched by iron nail.

Mineral can scratch glass.

slide6

Question!

Name two types of luster.

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Question!

What is meant by “hardness” of a mineral?

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4. Fracture & Cleavage

a. Fracture describes how the mineral breaks.

- Jagged edge, straight edge, scalloped edge

b. Cleavage is a type of fracture in which the mineral tends to split into flat edged layers or sheets.

5. Streak

- the color of the mineral when powdered may be different that the color of the solid mineral.

6. Color

- some minerals can be identified by their unique color, while others can exist in a variety of colors due to the presence of impurities.

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Question!

What does “fracture” describe?

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Question!

Why can the same mineral be found in different colors?

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7. Special Properties

- Reactivity with acid (effervescence)

- Magnetism

- Fluorescence

- Electrical behaviors

- Refraction of light

8. Density (Specific Gravity)

- mass per unit of volume (gm/cm3).

- measured by water displacement.

* Find the density of copper.

Mass = ______ g Volume = ______ ml

Density = ______ g/ml