What is a Mineral?. Chapter 4.1. Rocks v.s . Minerals 1. A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a crystal structure and a characteristic chemical composition. a. Not man-made. b. Inorganic - not produced by a living thing.
1. A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a crystal structure and a characteristic chemical composition.
a. Not man-made.
b. Inorganic - not produced by a living thing.
c. Crystalline - particles arranged in an orderly pattern.
d. Specific chemical formula.
e. Over 3,000 known minerals.
2. A rock is a solid combination of various minerals.
What is the difference between a rock and a mineral?
( Physical Science Text pages 894 – 895 )
1. Crystal Structure
- each type of mineral has a specific crystalline shape.
- the way the surface of the mineral reflects light.
- metallic (shiny)
- nonmetallic (dull, glassy, silky, or earthy)
- the resistance of a mineral to scratching.
- use Mohs Scale of Hardness
Field Test for Hardness
Easily scratched by fingernail.
Scratched by copper penny.
Scratched by iron nail.
Mineral can scratch glass.
Name two types of luster.
What is meant by “hardness” of a mineral?
a. Fracture describes how the mineral breaks.
- Jagged edge, straight edge, scalloped edge
b. Cleavage is a type of fracture in which the mineral tends to split into flat edged layers or sheets.
- the color of the mineral when powdered may be different that the color of the solid mineral.
- some minerals can be identified by their unique color, while others can exist in a variety of colors due to the presence of impurities.
What does “fracture” describe?
Why can the same mineral be found in different colors?
- Reactivity with acid (effervescence)
- Electrical behaviors
- Refraction of light
8. Density (Specific Gravity)
- mass per unit of volume (gm/cm3).
- measured by water displacement.
* Find the density of copper.
Mass = ______ g Volume = ______ ml
Density = ______ g/ml