Chapter 21 – The Indian Subcontinent Section Notes Video Physical Geography History and Culture of India India Today India’s Neighbors Impact of Population Density Maps Indian Subcontinent: Political Indian Subcontinent: Physical Indian Subcontinent: Precipitation India: Population Religions of the Indian Subcontinent The Indian Subcontinent Close-up Diwali: The Festival of Lights World Almanac Images Religions of the Indian Subcontinent Geography Summer and Winter Monsoons Crowded Delhi Street Sri Lanka Population Growth in Indian Subcontinent Quick Facts Chapter 21 Visual Summary
Physical Geography • The Big Idea • The physical geography of the Indian Subcontinent features unique physical features and a variety of climates and resources. • Main Ideas • Towering mountains, large rivers, and broad plains are the key physical features of the Indian Subcontinent. • The Indian Subcontinent has a great variety of climate regions and resources.
A subcontinent is a large landmass that is smaller than a continent. The Indian Subcontinent is a triangular wedge of land that juts out from the southernmost portion of Asia. The Indian Subcontinent is also called South Asia. The Indian Subcontinent is made up of seven countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The Indian Subcontinent is one of the most distinctive geographic regions in the world. Main Idea 1:Towering mountains, large rivers, and broad plains are the key physical features of the Indian Subcontinent.
Key Physical Features • Mountains • Hindu Kush mountains divide the subcontinent from Central Asia. • The Eastern and Western Ghats separate India’s east and west coasts from the country’s interior. • The Himalayas run along the northern border and are home to the world’s highest mountains. • Rivers and Plains • The rivers flood each year, leaving fertile plains. • India’s most important river is the Ganges. • A delta is a landform at the mouth of a river. • The Ganges Plain is India’s farming heartland. • The Indus River creates a fertile plain known as the Indus River Valley. • Other Features • The Deccan is a large, hilly plateau located to the south of the Ganges Plain. • The Thar, or Great Indian Desert, is made up of rolling sand dunes. • The Tarai in southern Nepal has fertile farmland and tropical jungles.
Main Idea 2:The Indian Subcontinent has a great variety of climate regions and resources. The Indian Subcontinent has four climate regions: the highland climate, the subtropical climate, the tropical climate, and the desert or steppe climate. Monsoons have a huge influence on the weather and climates in the subcontinent. Agricultural and mineral resources are plentiful.
Highland climate Himalayas Brings cool temperatures to much of Nepal and Bhutan Humid subtropical climate Plains south of the Himalayas Hot, humid summers with plenty of rainfall Tropical climate Covers much of the subcontinent Tropical savanna in central India and Sri Lanka Humid tropical climate in southwest India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Bangladesh Desert and steppe climate Throughout southern and western India and most of Pakistan Dry Climate Regions
Monsoons Monsoons are seasonal winds that bring either moist or dry air to an area. Summer monsoons bring heavy rains and fertile growing conditions to many places on the Indian Subcontinent. In the winter, the monsoons change direction. The winter monsoons bring dry air from the north, and little rain falls during this time of year.
Natural Resources Agricultural Resources • Fertile soil • Timber • Livestock Mineral Resources • Iron ore – India • Coal – India • Natural gas reserves – Pakistan • Gemstones – Sri Lanka
History and Culture of India • The Big Idea • Ancient civilizations and powerful empires have shaped the history and culture of India. • Main Ideas • Advanced civilizations and powerful empires shaped the early history of India. • Powerful empires controlled India for hundreds of years. • Independence from Great Britain led to the division of India into several countries. • Religion and the caste system are two important parts of Indian culture.
Main Idea 1:Advanced civilizations and powerful empires shaped the early history of India. Ancient Civilizations • Around 2300 BC the Harappan civilization began in the Indus River Valley. • The Ayrans, invaders from Central Asia, entered India around 1500 BC. • Aryan culture helped shape the language, religion, and caste system of India. Early Empires • By 223 BC the Mauryan Empire controled most of the Indian Subcontinent. • Emperor Asoka helped spread Buddhism in India. • Indian trade and culture flourished during the Gupta Empire.
The Mughal Empire Babur establisheed the Mughal Empire in northern India in 1526 Indian trade, culture, and religion thrived under the rule of Akbar the Great. By 1700 the Mughal Empire ruled almost all of the Indian Subcontinent. The British Empire The British East India Company established trade in India in the early 1600s. By the mid-1800s the company controlled more than half of the Indian Subcontinent. India became a British colony. Indian troops revolted against the East India Company. The British government took direct control of India in 1858. India and Pakistan gained independence in 1947. Main Idea 2:Powerful empires controlled India for hundreds of years.
Indians began to question British rule and created the Indian National Congress. Mohandas Gandhi was the most important leader of the Indian independence movement. Great Britain finally agreed to make India independent, but they feared that a civil war would erupt between India’s Hindu and Muslim communities. To avoid civil war, the British government agreed to the partition, or division, of India into two separate countries: India and Pakistan. Sri Lanka and Maldives gained their independence from Great Britain. In 1971 East Pakistan broke away to form the country of Bangladesh. Main Idea 3:Independence from Great Britain led to the division of India into several countries.
Main Idea 4:Religion and the caste system are two important parts of Indian culture. • India is the birthplace of several major religions, including Hinduism and Buddhism. Religion • One of the world’s oldest religions • Hinduism—the dominant religion of India • Believe everything in the universe is part of a single spirit called Brahman • Believe one’s ultimate goal is to reunite one’s soul with Brahman • Believe in reincarnation Hinduism • Began in northern India in the late 500s BC • Buddhism—a religion based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha • Believe people can rise above their desire for material goods and reach nirvana • Nirvana is a state of perfect peace. Buddhism
The caste system divided Indian society into groups based on a person’s birth or occupation. The caste system features four main classes, originally based on occupations. Below the four main castes are the Dalits, members of India’s lowest class. Many rules guided interaction between the classes. The Caste System
India Today • The Big Idea • India today features a blend of modern and traditional culture, a rapidly growing population, and a developing economy. • Main Ideas • Daily life in India is centered around cities, villages, and religion. • Today India faces many challenges, including a growing population and economic development.
Main Idea 1:Daily life in India is centered around cities, villages, and religion. • Cities • Two largest cities—Mumbai (Bombay) and Kolkata (Calcutta) • Bangalore and Mumbai—universities, research centers, and high-tech businesses • Most people struggle to earn a living in the cities. • Villages • Most Indians live in rural areas. • Most villagers work as farmers and live with an extended family. • Paved roads and electricity have only recently reached many Indian villages. • Religion • Plays a key role in Indian daily life • Most practice Hinduism. • Many follow other religions (Islam, Buddhism, etc.). • Millions practice Sikhism and Jainism. • Religious celebrations are important.
Population India is the world’s second most populous country. India’s huge population places a strain on India’s environment and resources. Urbanization is taking place. Urbanization is the increase in the percentage of people who live in cities. Main Idea 2: Today India faces many challenges, including a growing population and economic development.
India is the world’s largest democracy. India is one of the strongest nations in Asia. One of India’s largest industries is its moviemaking industry—called Bollywood. Although India is one of the world’s top five industrial countries, millions of Indians live in poverty. Government and the Economy
Challenges for India • 1. Poverty • India’s government instituted a reform called the green • revolution, a program that encouraged farmers to adopt • modern agricultural methods. • The government had succeeded in attracting many high- • tech businesses to India. 2. A growing population 3. Relationship with Pakistan
India’s Neighbors • The Big Idea • Despite cultural differences, the countries that border India share similar challenges. • Main Ideas • Many different ethnic groups and religions influence the culture of India’s neighbors. • Rapid population growth, ethnic conflicts, and environmental threats are major challenges to the region today.
Five countries share the subcontinent with India: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka. These countries have significantly different cultures. The people of these countries come from many different ethnic groups. A variety of religions exist on the Indian Subcontinent. Main Idea 1:Many different ethnic groups and religions influence the culture of India’s neighbors.
People The Indian Subcontinent is home to many different ethnic groups. The Sherpas, an ethnic group from the mountains of Nepal, often serve as guides through the Himalayas. Bhutan’s largest ethnic group originally came from Tibet. Many of Sri Lanka’s Tamil people came from India to work the country’s huge plantations. Religions Pakistan: most practice Islam; small portions of the population follow Hinduism, Christianity, and tribal religions. Bangladesh: most practice Islam; small portions of the population follow Hinduism, Christianity, and tribal religions. Nepal: the dominant religion is Hinduism, although Buddhism is practiced in some parts of the country. Bhutan: the dominant religion is Buddhism. Sri Lanka: the dominant religion is Buddhism. People and Religions of the Indian Subcontinent
Major Challenges for Pakistan Lack of government stability Rapid population growth Troubled relationship with India, especially over the territory of Kashmir Terrorists within Pakistan’s borders Main Idea 2:Rapid population growth, ethnic conflicts, and environmental threats are major challenges to the region today.
Over population One of the world’s most densely populated countries Dhaka (capital and largest city) – over 11.5 million people Flooding Major Challenges for Bangladesh
Rapid population growth Population has more than doubled in the last 30 years. Kathmandu (capital and largest city) – over-crowded and impoverished One of the world’s least-developed nations Deforestation Controlling tourism Major Challenges for Nepal
Conflict between Sri Lanka’s two largest ethnic groups: the Tamil and the Sinhalese Tsunami in 2004 Killed thousands of Sri Lankans Crippled Sri Lanka’s fishing and agricultural industries Major Challenges for Sri Lanka
Small mountain kingdom in the Himalayas Most people earn a living as farmers. Tourism is an important industry. Government limits the number of visitors in order to protect the environment and Bhutan’s way of life. Bhutan Today