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  1. Assignment 2 • Research and Planning: Part A • Record what you understand by the terms, ‘living and non living’ (100 words) • Then: • Read through the transcript of interviews with students aged 6 -7 years about their understanding of living and non living • (See Appendix in your unit outline)

  2. Part BReflecting on the transcripts. • Reflect on and record: • 1. Compare the transcript with the results on page 25 (Table 2.1). Are there any similarities in the criteria used by the children in their thinking? (200 words) • 2. How would you teach the children interviewed about the concept of living and non-living things? Consider the different approaches/models to teaching science. Record your thoughts. (500 words)

  3. Part CPlanning in Science Learning • 1. The NSW Science & Technology Syllabus Outcome for Knowledge and Understanding Content Strand for Stage 1 – Living Things states • ‘Students will develop their knowledge and understanding of Living Things: • All living things are different • Living things grow, reproduce, move, need air, take in nutrients and eliminate waste • The senses are used to receive messages from all around • Using the information from the interviews, the Science and Technology syllabus and your text

  4. Develop an investigation ( hands on experience) task for each of the science concepts below: • All living things grow • All living things move • All living things are different • The tasks are to stimulate student curiosity and involve them in making and recording observations. • Outline for each of your tasks, the materials needed; classroom organisation (group/ pair / whole class) • Remember – the students are in Stage 1

  5. DUE • No later than 4pm Friday 8th October

  6. Science and TechnologyBecoming a leader and teacher in science

  7. The main approaches in science • A transmission approach • A process approach • A discovery approach • An interactive approach • A cultural – historical approach

  8. Approaches to science and technology • Pre 1960s witnessed structured and directed learning of concepts • 1980s saw hands-on discovery learning which emphasised skills • Today the more interactive approach is used and builds on these two earlier approaches

  9. The interactive approach • The interactive approach acknowledges that concepts and skills are both important • It sees the educator and the child having an active role to play in facilitating science (Fleer and Hardy, 1996) • What is a significant role for the teacher? Ask open ended questions and please avoid the empty narrow question ‘What is it?’

  10. Common Ground Transmission Approach Process Skills Approach Interactive Approach Discovery Approach

  11. Science.... • Uses process skills in its investigations • Discovers the truths of the natural and physical world • Is a body of knowledge that can be transmitted • Involves the interactive construction of conceptual understandings

  12. Teaching approaches: and the role of the teacher • A discovery approach: you are a classroom resource, a counsellor-and friend or a neutral person

  13. Teaching approaches: and the role of the teacher • A transmission approach: you ask questions, provide feedback, you are the centre of the teaching – learning process, you highlight facts, concepts, theories, laws, logical and critical thinking

  14. Teaching approaches: and the role of the teacher • A process skills approach: you have a focus on small group science lessons that draw on the students using the scientific skills of observation, communication

  15. Teaching approaches: and the role of the teacher • An interactive approach: small groups, peer learning, hands on, you roam, students discuss a question they have chosen to investigate

  16. Teaching approaches: and the role of the teacher • A cultural-historical approach: high constructivism, you consider the context, family values, beliefs, social relations, small group work, children engage in high participation, social engagement

  17. Your Teaching Approach Select 1 of the 5 Modify 1 Combine 2 or more Use all at different times throughout the course of a unit / topic

  18. How do you Decide? Assess your level of confidence in classroom management Your rapport with your class Your level of understanding of the approaches Students prior experiences What learning structures exist Your competence in teaching science Level of support offered

  19. Key Principles for Effective teaching Take account of children’s ideas in planning and teaching – you will need to have a range of strategies to discover the ideas that children hold - listen Learning starts from and values the beliefs, concepts and skills of students Australian Education Council 1994

  20. A clearly developed rationale and set of learning outcomes Preparation is important – rich, interesting relevant tasks Focus on desired outcomes – keep children on task through questioning and extension of their ideas Participate A good attitude to science Special needs: boys / girls / indigenous / religious / disadvantaged/ talented

  21. Experiences teaching science • Investigations / Experiments • Making things • Worksheets • Book research • Reading stories • Discussions • Games • Excursions

  22. Hands on Encourages children to: Construct their own meaning in science Ask their own questions Become more sensitive to their environment

  23. Children as rudimentary scientists • By the end of the science program some children should realise that they themselves were scientists • WE ARE SCIENTISTS! We worked as a group! • We explored! • We made theories! • We researched! • We discovered! • We had fun!

  24. A Science Unit (p. 58 Syllabus and Support Document) Content focus: the strands (6) Outcomes: linked to the processes of investigating, designing, making and using technology Assessment: strategies you will use to assess Links: with other KLA’s Teacher notes Suggested resources