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Perceived Justice and Barriers and Facilitators to the Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida. Dissertation Hearing Defense Delsa R. Bush April 7, 2009. INTRODUCTION. Introduction to the Problem.

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dissertation hearing defense delsa r bush april 7 2009

Perceived Justice and Barriers and Facilitators to the Attainment of Leadership Positions in Local and County Law Enforcement Organizations in the State of Florida

Dissertation Hearing Defense

Delsa R. Bush

April 7, 2009

introduction to the problem
Introduction to the Problem
  • Women, minorities, increasing within organizations
  • Women and minorities occupy the lower rungs in leadership positions
  • 17,000 Law Enforcement Organization
  • Women in chief executive positions 1%
  • Glass Ceiling Effect
purposes of the study
Purposes of the Study
  • Descriptive: Study sample in terms of all variables, human capital assets, demographic characteristics, perceived procedural justice, distributive justice, barriers and facilitators to career advancement, and attainment of leadership positions according to organizational characteristics
purposes of study cont
Purposes of Study Cont.
  • Exploratory (Comparative)1:
  • Exploratory (Comparative)2: Determine differences in all study variables according to race and gender
  • Explanatory (Correlational): Determine if study variables are significant explanatory variables of attainment of law enforcement positions
  • Contribute to the Empirical Validity of Cotter et al. (2001) criterion based glass ceiling effect
definition of terms
Definition of Terms
  • Glass ceiling
  • Human capital assets
  • Demographic characteristics
  • Organizational characteristics
  • Procedural justice
  • Distributive justice
  • Perceived barriers and facilitators to career advancement
justification
Justification
  • Significant - contribution to knowledge
  • Researchable – scientific, measureable, tested
  • Feasible - participants are available
delimitations and scope
Delimitations and Scope
  • Setting (geographic) is confined to the State of Florida.
  • Setting (organizational) 100 or more officers
  • Target population law enforcement officers only local and county only
review of the literature
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
  • Leader label
  • Self Conceptualization
  • Tokenism
  • Brass Ceiling
  • Equity Theory
  • Procedural Justice
  • Distributive Justice
  • Perceived Barriers and Facilitators
  • Glass Ceiling
gaps in the literature
Gaps in the Literature
  • Literature limited to corporate organizations
  • Effects of race and gender combined is ignored
  • Glass ceiling effect not synthesized
theoretical framework
Theoretical Framework
  • Glass ceiling effect
  • Equity theory
  • Procedural justice
  • Distributive justice
  • Perceived barriers and facilitators to career advancement (Lyness & Thompson, 2001)
hypothesized model

Human Capital Assets

Demographic

Race

Gender

Organizational Characteristics

Procedural Justice

Distributive Justice

Barriers and Facilitators to Career Advancement

H2

H3

H6

H4

H5

H1a

H1b

Attainment of Leadership Positions

H1c

Hypothesized Model
research question 1
Research Question 1
  • Descriptive
    • Sample in terms of all variables
      • Human capital assets
      • Demographic characteristics
      • Organizational characteristics
      • Procedural justice
      • Distributive justice
      • Perceived barriers in facilitator to career advancement
research question 2
Research Question 2
  • Exploratory (comparative)
    • Differences according to organizational characteristics
hypothesis 1
Hypothesis 1
  • Exploratory (comparative) 2
    • Differences according to demographic characteristics
      • Race and Gender
hypothesis 2 6
Hypothesis 2-6
  • Explanatory (correlational)
    • Significant
    • Leadership positions
research design
Research Design
  • Quantitative
  • Non-experimental
  • Descriptive (research question 1)
  • Exploratory (comparative) research question 2, hypothesis 1 and sub hypothesis
  • Explanatory (Correlational, hypotheses 2-6)
  • Self report online survey research
population sampling sample size and setting
Population, Sampling, Sample Size, and Setting
  • Target population (2500)
  • Accessible population (entire target population (with e-mail addresses)
    • No more than 2500 officers
    • 75 local and state
  • No sampling plan (entire population)
sample size
Sample Size
  • The sample size needed for data analysis
  • Green’s (1991) estimate sample size n (sample size) = 50 + 8 (m)=258
  • m = number of explanatory variables =26
  • 286
sample size cont
Sample Size Cont.
  • 428 responses
  • 286 responses valid (data analysis)
  • 11.64% response overall
setting
Setting
  • State of Florida
  • 75 law enforcement agencies
  • Within Organizations 100 or more
  • At home or Office
instrumentation
Instrumentation
  • Six-part online Survey
  • 73 questions self report
  • Approximately 20 minutes to complete.
  • Electronically via a website.
instrumentation cont
Instrumentation Cont.
  • Part 1 - Human capital assets (5)
  • Leadership attainment (1)
    • Developed by researcher
    • Education
    • Training
    • Experience
    • Tenure
    • Level of Knowledge
instrumentation cont1
Instrumentation Cont.
  • Part 2 - Demographic characteristics (4)
    • Race
    • Gender
    • Age
    • Ethnicity
instrumentation cont2
Instrumentation Cont.
  • Part 3 - Organizational characteristics (4)
    • Size
    • State/local
    • Union affiliation
    • Promotional process
instrumentation cont3
Instrumentation cont.
  • Part 4 - Distributive justice (6)
    • Moorman (1991)
    • Cronbach’s alpha .94
    • Internal consistency acceptable
    • Above .70 (Nunnally, 1978)
    • Confirmatory factor analysis .67-.89
instrumentation cont4
Instrumentation cont.
  • Part 5 - Procedural justice (6)
    • Price and Muller (1996)
    • Cronbach’s alpha, .82
    • Exploratory factor analysis >.80
instrumentation cont5
Instrumentation Cont.
  • Part 6 - Perceived barriers and facilitators to career advancement (47)
    • Lyness & Thompson (2000)
    • Perceived Barriers 6a (26)
      • Six subscales
      • coefficient alphas .69-.84
      • Factor analysis not reported
instrumentation cont6
Instrumentation Cont.
  • Perceived Facilitators 6b (21)
    • Five sub-scales
    • Coefficient alphas sub-scale .70-.90
    • Validity not reported
data collection ethical considerations
Data Collection/Ethical Considerations

Document preparation

  • Permission for the use of questionnaires x 4
  • SurveyMonkey.com policies and procedures
  • Online survey
  • IRB application and protocol
  • Waiver of signed consent
  • Placed on website SurveyMonkey.com
data collection cont
Data Collection Cont.
  • Anonymous, group responses,
  • No e-mail List Management tool
  • Survey Responses Collected Daily
  • 31 days
  • IRB form 8
  • The data will be destroyed after one year.
method of data analysis
Method of Data Analysis
  • Validity of scales
    • Principle Component analysis
  • Internal Consistency Reliability

Cronbach’s Alpha

  • Divergent Validity
    • Pearson r correlations
data analysis cont
Data Analysis Cont.
  • Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 14
  • Data coding
  • Research Question 1:Exploratory data analysis (descriptive statistics)
  • Research Question 2: Independent t tests, Chi-square, Pearson r
data analysis cont1
Data Analysis Cont.
  • Data analysis hypotheses testing
    • H1a: Independent t tests x 14
    • H1b: Independent t tests x 14
    • H1c:14 ANOVA one way with post hoc comparison
    • Hypotheses 2-6:Pearson r, Point-biserial, Separate multiple regression analysis (stepwise)
results cont
Results Cont.
  • Validity and Reliability of Instruments
results research question 1
Results Research Question 1
  • Human capital assets
  • Demographic characteristics
  • Organizational characteristics
  • Perceptions of Procedural Justice
  • Perceptions of Distributive Justice
  • Perceived Barriers
  • Perceived Facilitators
research question 21
Research Question 2

Differences in human Capital Assets, demographic characteristics, perceptions of procedural justice, distributive justice, barriers and facilitators to career advancement, according to organizational characteristics

research hypothesis 1
Research Hypothesis 1

African American women perceive less justice, more Barriers Fewer Facilitators, and attain fewer leadership positions than other racial groups

h1c partially supported
H1c partially supported

Hypothesized Order of Perception

White Males

African American Male

White Females

African American Females

+ -

evaluation of research methods
Evaluation of Research Methods

Internal Validity

  • Strengths
    • The quantitative, explanatory (correlational)
    • Procedures for data analysis are appropriate
    • Appropriate sample size
    • Instruments used in the survey are valid and reliable
  • Weaknesses
    • Research design non-experimental
    • Instruments with moderate validity
    • Electronic Survey
evaluation of research methods cont
Evaluation of Research Methods Cont.

External Validity

  • Strengths
    • Entire population
    • Natural setting
    • Large sample (entire population)
    • Homogenous population
evaluation of methodology cont
Evaluation of methodology Cont.

External Validity

  • Weaknesses
    • Homogenous target population
    • In one state
    • Not generalizable/geographic
summary and interpretation
Summary and Interpretation
  • 70% of training at institutions other than the FBI or Southern Police Institute.
  • Human capital were very significant explanatory barriers, whereas race and gender was hypothesized.
  • 70% belonged to organizations with more than 250 employees.
summary and interpretations cont
Summary and Interpretations Cont.
  • Labor unions. 85% unions
  • 94% promoted
  • As aggregate, moderate perceptions of PJ, DJ, BCA,FCA.
summary and interpretations cont1
Summary and Interpretations Cont.
  • Lower level leaders receive less advanced training
  • Appointed= higher knowledge, higher positions, in smaller agencies/sig.
practical implications
Practical Implications
  • Support training, and education
  • Training/education= human capital assets =attainment of leadership positions
  • Remove barriers and facilitators to facilitate the attainment of leadership positions
  • Change Culture within organizations
practical implications cont
Practical Implications Cont.
  • Lack of Culture largest Barrier
  • Glass Ceiling Effect diminished by removal of Barriers
  • Expand Mentoring programs
conclusions
Conclusions
  • No gender or racial significant differences in the attainment of leadership positions
  • Over representation=Whites, and larger organizations
  • Majority occupied lower level positions
  • Inverse relationship attainment of leadership positions and organizational size
  • More African Americans employed in county vs local
conclusions cont
Conclusions Cont.
  • Appointed /higher perceptions of facilitators
  • Appointed more knowledgeable/higher positions
  • Females, more barriers in significant subscale Lack of Culture Fit.
  • African Americans, greater barriers and total barriers
  • White males ,fewer barriers than any other group.
conclusions cont1
Conclusions Cont.
  • African American Males,more facilitators/sig
  • Age significant Explanatory variable
  • Human Capital Assets significant explanatory variable ALP
  • African American females /less leadership positions/not sig.
limitations
Limitations
  • Non-experimental.
  • State of Florida.
  • Local and county law
  • Agencies with more than 100 sworn law enforcement officers
  • Online research design was limited
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Scales and surveys specifically designed for law enforcement organizations
  • Research design interviews and questionnaires
  • Replication-national sample of law enforcement organizations
recommendations cont
Recommendations Cont.
  • Conduct construct validity studies of scales
  • Additional variables incorporated into model
the end
The End

Questions and Answers