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2009 Energy Conference April 7, 2009. The Energy Problem. Economic prosperity is intimately tied to affordable energy. There is potential for geopolitical conflict due to escalating competition for energy resources. The risk of adverse Climate Change.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
The Energy Problem
  • Economic prosperity is intimately tied to affordable energy.
  • There is potential for geopolitical conflict due to escalating competition for energy resources.
  • The risk of adverse Climate Change.
slide4
Oil Dependency is a Drain on our Economy

Percentage price increase

Gray bars indicate a recession

FRBSF Economic Letter 11/18/05

slide9
The standard of living of a country is not proportional to its energy consumption:Human Development Index vs. Electricity use

United States

Japan, France, Netherlands, Italy, UK, Germany, Israel, etc.

slide10
Per Capita Electricity Sales (not including self-generation)

(kWh/person) (2006 to 2008 are forecast data)

14,000

12,000

United States

2005 Differences

= 5,300kWh/yr

10,000

= $165/capita

8,000

California

6,000

4,000

2,000

0

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

1998

1960

1962

1964

1966

1968

1970

1972

1974

1976

1978

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

Electricity use per person (1960 – 2008)

From 1973 to 2008, the GDP/capita in California has doubled.

slide11
New Energy for America’s Economy

Clean Energy Economy

President Obama’s plan:

Create new green jobs that can’t be outsourced andadd to America’s future competitiveness

slide12
New Energy for America’s Economy

American Competitiveness

slide13
Building Efficiency: Where we are & where we can be.

~ 3x improvement demonstrated6 -8x improvement is possible

slide14
New Energy for America’s Economy
  • An energy efficient economy requires:
    • Federal investments to promote efficiency
    • Strong and sensible standards
    • Research, development, and deployment of new technologies
    • The collective will of the American people.
slide16
New Energy for America’s Economy

Step 1:

Federal investments to promote efficiency

slide17
New Energy for America’s Economy

President Obama’s American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

Double alternative energy production over three years

$6 billion in loan guarantees

$8.2 billion for weatherization and energy efficiency

$3.1 billion for state energy efforts

$11 billion for smart grid

President Obama wants R & D tax credit to be permanent

slide18
747- 400 64.5 m

Modest but stable fiscal incentives were essential to stimulate long term development. Energy transmission/storage is also needed.

6 MW generator (126 m diameter rotors).

slide19
New Energy for America’s Economy

Step 2:

Strong and sensible standards

slide21
New Energy for America’s Economy

Step 3:

Research, development, and deployment of new technologies

slide22
Cost of electricity generation vs. installed capacity (1990 dollars / installed Megawatt hour)

Photovoltaics

2005

Windmills

2005

Gas turbines

5x cost difference

(not including distribution, energy storage and back-up generation costs)

slide23
A transformative technology
  • An essential component transcontinental telephone line was the vacuum tube.
  • Vacuum tubes generated a lot of heat and burned out.
  • AT&T Bell Laboratories invested heavily in improving vacuum tubes. They also embarked on a research program to develop a solid state replacement to the vacuum tube.
slide24
Reel-to-reel mass production of efficient solar cells based on rapidly developing nano-technology may be possible.
slide25
New Energy for America’s Economy

The Department of Energy must become the modern Bell Labs

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Argonne National Laboratory

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Berkeley National Laboratory

slide26
New Energy for America’s Economy

Department of Energy

Largest science funder

17 National Laboratories

Researchers at 300 universities

88 Nobel Prize winners

slide28
New Energy for America’s Economy

President Obama: Double investment in science over 10 years

slide29
Improved conversion of cellulose into fuel.New organisms for biomass conversion.

Sunlight to energy via Bio-mass

Sunlight

CO2,H20,

Nutrients

Chemical energy

Biomass

Develop energy plants that can use marginal agricultural land, need less nutrients, water, and are easier to breakdown into simple sugars

slide30
Norman Borlaug awarded Nobel Prize

World Production of Grain (1961 – 2004)

The Population Bomb goes to press

2005:Population = 6.5 B

1960: Population = 3 B

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations

slide31
The invention of ammonia synthesis by Haber and Bosch made possible artificial fertilizers.

Carl Bosch

Fritz Haber

helios artificial photosynthesis project
Helios Artificial Photosynthesis Project

The first important step:

Sunlight + 2H2O O2 + 4H+ + 4e-

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