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  2. Objectives Analyse a work-flow process, identifying the output, activities and inputs in the production of a product or service. Understand the importance of job analysis in human resource management. Choose the right job analysis technique for a variety of human resource activities. Identify the tasks performed and the skills requiredin a given job.

  3. Objectives • Understand the different approaches to job design • Comprehend the trade-offs among the various approaches to designing jobs. • Identify approaches to the management of human capital in various employment modes.

  4. Work-flow analysis • The process of analyzing the tasks necessary for the production of a product or service, prior to allocating and assigning these tasks to a particular job category or person.

  5. Definitions • Job Analysis- A purposeful systematic process for collecting information on the important work related aspects of a job • Job description – A list of the tasks, duties and responsibilities (TDRs) that a job entails. • Job specification A list of the knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics (KSAOs) that an individual must have to perform a job.

  6. Definitions Tasks - Series of work elements used to produce an output. Position - Consists of the responsibilities and duties performed by an individual Job – Group of positions that are similar in their duties.

  7. Work Flow In Organizations

  8. Work-unit Activity Analysis

  9. Work Flow Design • Within an organization, units and individuals must cooperate to create outputs. • The organization’s structure brings together the people who must collaborate to efficiently produce the desired outputs. • Centralized • Decentralized • Functional • Product or Customer

  10. Job Analysis The process of getting detailed information about jobs.

  11. Job Descriptions • Job Description: a list of tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) that a particular job entails. • Key components: • Job Title • Brief description of the TDRs • List of the essential duties with detailed specifications of the tasks involved in carrying out each duty

  12. Sample Job Description

  13. Job Specifications • Job Specification: a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) that an individual must have to perform a particular job. • Knowledge: factual or procedural information necessary for successfully performing a task. • Skill: an individual’s level of proficiency at performing a particular task. • Ability: a more general enduring capability that an individual possesses. • Other Characteristics: job-related licensing, certifications, or personality traits.

  14. Sample Job Specifications

  15. Steps in Job Analysis • Step 1 - Examine the total organization and fit of each job • Step 2- Determine how job analysis information will be used • Step 3- Select jobs to be analyzed • Step 4- Collect data by using acceptable job analysis techniques

  16. Steps in Job Analysis • Step 5 Prepare job description • Step 6 Prepare Job specification

  17. Use job analysis Information for • Job Design • Planning • Recruitment • Selection and training • Performance Evaluation • Compensation and benefits • EEO compliance • Follow up Evaluation

  18. Who Should Conduct Job Analysis • Job Analysis Experts • Temporary job Analysts • Job incumbents • Supervisors • Combination of all these

  19. Overview of the organization and its jobs Flow of work Arrangements of departments units and jobs

  20. Job Analysis methods • Observation • Interview • Questionnaire • Job Incumbent Diary or Log • Multi method

  21. Quantitative techniques • Functional job analysis • Position analysis questionnaire • Management position description questionnaire

  22. Sources of Job Information

  23. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) What is it? Key sections: Information input Mental processes Work output Relationships with other persons Job context Other characteristics A standardized job analysis questionnaire containing 194 questions about work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics that apply to a wide variety of jobs.

  24. Fleishman Job Analysis System What is it? Categories of abilities: Written comprehension Deductive reasoning Manual dexterity Stamina Originality Job analysis technique that asks subject-matter experts to evaluate a job in terms of the abilities required to perform the job.

  25. Example of an Ability from the Fleishman Job Analysis System

  26. Management Position Description Questionnaire (MPDQ) • MPDQ is a checklist of 208 items related to the concerns and responsibilities of managers • Comprehensive description of managerial work – classified into 15 sections

  27. MPDQ • General information • Decision making • Planning and organizing • Administering • Controlling • Supervising • Consulting and innovating • Contacts • Coordinating

  28. MPDQ • Representing • Monitoring Business indicators • Overall ratings • Knowledge, skill and Abilities • Organizational Chart • Comments and reactions

  29. Job Description • Job Title – identity info, wages, benefits • Summary- purpose , outputs expected • Equipment- tools, equipment and info required to do the job • Environment – working conditions, locations, hazards, noise level etc • Activities – duties, responsibilities, behaviors performed in the job. Size of work group, dependency in the work etc

  30. Job Specification What personal traits and experiences are needed to perform the job effectively. • Experience and Training • Education • Knowledge • Skills • abilities

  31. Job Design • Job Design:the process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job. • Job Redesign: a similar process that involves changing an existing job design. • To design jobs effectively, a person must thoroughly understand: • the job itself (through job analysis) and • its place in the units work flow (work flow analysis)

  32. Approaches to Job Design

  33. Designing Efficient Jobs • Industrial Engineering: the study of jobs to find the simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiency. • Reduces the complexity of work. • Allows almost anyone to be trained quickly and easily perform the job. • Used for highly specialized and repetitive jobs.

  34. Designing Jobs That Motivate: The Job Characteristics Model Skill variety – the extent to which a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved. Task identity – the degree to which a job requires completing a “whole” piece of work from beginning to end. Task significance – the extent to which the job has an important impact on the lives of other people.

  35. Designing Jobs that Motivate: The Job Characteristics Model(continued) Autonomy – the degree to which the job allows an individual to make decisions about the way work will be carried out. Feedback - the extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself.

  36. Characteristics of a Motivating Job

  37. Designing Jobs That Motivate (continued):Job Enlargement

  38. Designing Jobs That Motivate (continued) Job Enrichment Self-Managing Work Teams • Have authority for an entire work process or segment: • schedule work • hire team members • resolve team performance problems • perform other duties traditionally handled by management • Team members motivated by autonomy, skill variety, and task identity. • Empowering workers by adding more decision-making authority to jobs. • Based on Herzberg’s theory of motivation. • Individuals are motivated more by the intrinsic aspects of work.

  39. Designing Jobs That Motivate (continued):Flexible Work Schedules Flextime Job Sharing A work option in which two part-time employees carry out the tasks associated with a single job. Enables an organization to attract or retain valued employees who want more time to attend school or take care of family matters. A scheduling policy in which full-time employees may choose starting and ending times within guidelines specified by the organization. A work schedule that allows time for community and family interests can be extremely motivating.

  40. Designing Jobs That Motivate (continued):Telework • Telework – the broad term for doing one’s work away from a centrally located office. • Advantages to employers include: • less need for office space • greater flexibility to employees with special needs • Easiest to implement for managerial, professional, or sales jobs. • Difficult to set up for manufacturing workers.

  41. Designing Ergonomic Jobs Ergonomics – the study of the interface between individuals’ physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment. The goal is to minimize physical strain on the worker by structuring the physical work environment around the way the human body works. Redesigning work to make it more worker- friendly can lead to increased efficiencies.

  42. Ways to Simplify a Job’s Mental Demands • Limit the amount of information and memorization that the job requires. • Organizations can provide: • adequate lighting • easy-to-read gauges and displays • simple-to-operate equipment • clear instructions

  43. Summary • Work flow analysis identifies: • the amount and quality of a work unit’s outputs • the work processes required to produce these outputs • the inputs used to carry out the processes and produce the outputs • Within an organization, units and individuals must cooperate to create outputs, and the organization’s structure brings people together for this purpose. • Job analysis is the process of getting detailed information about jobs.

  44. Summary (continued) • Job analysis includes preparation of : • Job descriptions • Job specifications • Information for analyzing an existing job often comes from incumbents and their supervisors. • The U.S. Department of Labor provides information: • Dictionary of Occupational Titles • Occupational Information Network (O*NET)

  45. Summary (continued) • The nature of work and job design is changing. • Viewing organizations in terms of a field of work needing to be done instead of specific job descriptions • Organizations are adopting project-based structures and teamwork, which also require flexibility and the ability to handle broad responsibilities. • The basic technique for designing efficient jobs is industrial engineering.

  46. Summary (continued) • According to the Job Characteristics Model, jobs are more motivating if they have greater skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. • Ways to create such jobs include: • Job Enlargement • Job Rotation • Job Enrichment • Self-managing work teams offer greater skill variety and task identity • Flexible work schedules and telework offer greater autonomy