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Job Analysis. SOC325 Behavior at Work Feb 4, 2002 Spector, Ch 3. What did you find about a lecturer? Tasks / duties Personal attributes. Two major approaches. Job-oriented JA What people do on a job? List of tasks performed (may be further broken down into different level of specificity)

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Job analysis l.jpg

Job Analysis

SOC325 Behavior at Work

Feb 4, 2002

Spector, Ch 3

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J. Kwong

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Two major approaches

  • Job-oriented JA

    • What people do on a job?

    • List of tasks performed (may be further broken down into different level of specificity)

  • Person-oriented JA

    • What kind of a person is needed to do the job?

    • Personal attributes and characteristics required to successfully perform the job

    • Knowledge, skill, ability, other personal characteristics (KSAOs)

J. Kwong

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Sources of JA information

  • Who gives the info?

    • Incumbent / Supervisor

    • Best as SME - people with extensive knowledge about the content and requirements of the job.

    • Job analyst / Trained observers

  • How to collect the info?

    • Perform the job / work participation

    • Administer questionnaires

J. Kwong

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Job Analysis Instruments

  • Job-oriented JA

    • e.g., Functional Job Analysis

  • Job + Person-oriented JA

    • e.g., Position Analysis Questionnaire,

    • Occupational Information Network O*NET

J. Kwong

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Job-oriented: FJA

  • 3 dimension that are applicable to all jobs

  • Describes the job`s typical interaction with

    • People: amount of contact with others, eg.,

    • Data: dealing with numbers, words, symbols, any info, e.g.,

    • Things: Animate (e.g., animals) or inanimate (e.g., tools, machines)

  • PDT each is given a score to indicate its level of complexity (range from high to low)

J. Kwong

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Data, People, Things

0 Synthesizing 0 Mentoring 0 Setting Up

1 Coordinating 1 Negotiating 1 Precision Working

2 Analyzing 2 Instructing 2 Operating-Controlling

3 Compiling 3 Supervising 3 Driving-Operating

4 Computing 4 Diverting 4 Manipulating

5 Copying 5 Persuading 5 Tending

6 Comparing 6 Speaking- 6 Feeding-

Signaling Offbearing

7 Serving 7 Handling

8 Taking Instructions-


J. Kwong

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Job-oriented: FJA

  • Over 40,000 different jobs have been analyzed by FJA

  • Included in the comprehensive job classification guide DOT - Dictionary of Occupational Titles

    • Part of the occupational titles


J. Kwong

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Job+Person-oriented: PAQ

  • A structured questionnaire (189 items) that analyzes jobs in terms of 6 categories:

    • information input: how does employee get information, read, hear, ...

    • mental processes (mediation processes): what to do with information, decision making activities and info processing requirement

    • work output: what to do physically

    • relationship with other persons (interpersonal activities): interact with other people

    • job context: physically challenging conditions

    • other job characteristics: work schedule, fixed, variable

J. Kwong

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Job+Person-oriented: PAQ

  • SME fills in the PAQ

  • Score the items

  • Generate a profile of the task elements

  • Translate the elements into KSAOs

    • Each elements in the categories can be translated into KSAOs for any job

    • e.g., Involves using mathematics or numeric input - require numeric skill

J. Kwong

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Job+Person-oriented: O*NET

  • O*NET, the Occupational Information Network, is a comprehensive database of worker attributes and job characteristics. It is the replacement for the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT).

  • DOT is in the process of being replaced by O*NET. O*NET can be found at


J. Kwong

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Job evaluation

  • Spector, p.66-67

    • Link the wages to the KSAOs needed for a job

    • Point method - to determine the pay levels of job by estimating their comparative worth

      • Compensable factors

        • education required

        • consequences of error on the job

      • Sum up the points for all factors

J. Kwong

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Uses of Job Analysis

Job Evaluation


Job Analysis

Criterion Development

Performance Appraisal



Job Description

Career development/Training

J. Kwong

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JA - Front desk manager

  • Task / duties

    • Motivate and lead subordinate

    • Planning and organizing

    • Handle complaints

  • KSAOs?

J. Kwong