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UNIT IV Chapter 10 Principles of Evolution. UNIT 4: EVOLUTION Chapter 10: Principles of Evolution I. Early Ideas about Evolution (10.1) A. Early scientists proposed ideas about evolution

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UNIT IV Chapter 10 Principles of Evolution


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    1. UNIT IV Chapter 10 Principles of Evolution

    2. UNIT 4: EVOLUTION Chapter 10: Principles of Evolution I. Early Ideas about Evolution (10.1) A. Early scientists proposed ideas about evolution 1. Evolution- process of biological change by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors 2. Other scientists besides Darwin came up with idea

    3. B. Four scientists important in development of evolution theory 1. Carolus Linnaeus (1700’s)- developed classification system to name living things (grouped by similarities)

    4. 2. Georges Louis Leclerc de Buffon (1700’s)- proposed species shared ancestors instead of arising separately

    5. 3. Erasamus Darwin- Darwin’s grandfather. Proposed that all living things were descended from a common ancestor

    6. 4. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck -proposed theory that all organisms evolved toward perfection and complexity. a. Proposed changes in environment caused an organism behavior to change, leading to greater use or disuse of a structure or organ b. Organism then passed changes on to offspring

    7. C. Theories of geologic change set stage for Darwin’s Theory 1. Age of the Earth was key issue in early debates a. Many thought Earth on 6000 years old b. Discovery of fossils created controversy

    8. 2. James Hutton (late 1700’s)- proposed that Earth very old. Said geologic change occurred gradually (called gradualism)

    9. 3. Charles Lyell (1830)- published “Principles of Geology”. Also said Earth must be very old. Said changes in Earth occurred at constant rate over time a. Same changes we see happening today b. Greatly affected Darwin’s thinking.

    10. II. Darwin’s Observations (10.2) A. Darwin observed differences among island species 1. Differences between species studied on Galapagos Islands

    11. 2. Noticed variations well suited to animals environment (variation- differences in physical traits)

    12. 3. Studied birds, tortoises and said some how adapt to their surroundings (adaptation- a feature that allows an organism to better survive in environment)

    13. B. Darwin observed fossil and geologic evidence supporting ancient Earth 1. Discovered fossil evidence of species changed over time 2. Suggested that modern organisms have relationship to fossil forms

    14.  3. Earth must be very old (supported Lyell’s theory) 4. Darwin said, like the Earth, organisms must change gradually over time

    15. III. Theory of Natural Selection (10.3) A. Several key insights led to Darwin’s idea for natural selection 1. Artificial Selection- process by which humans changes a species by breeding it for certain traits a. Darwin compared what he learned about breeding to his idea of adaptation b. Said that in nature, environment creates selective pressure instead of humans in artificial selection

    16. 2. Natural Selection- mechanism by which environment is selective agent a. Darwin used work of others to develop theory b. Said adaptations arose over many generations (called process “decent with modification)

    17. B. Natural selection explains how evolution can occur 1. 4 main principles to theory of natural selection a. Variation- variations in populations are basis for natural selection.

    18. b. Overproduction- organisms produce more offspring than will survive (creates competition)

    19. c. Adaptation- Some adaptations allow organism to survive at higher rate and individuals are “naturally selected” to survive and produce offspring

    20. d. Descent with Modification- Over time, natural selection will result in species with adaptations that are well suited for survival

    21. Before the industrial revolution, soot was rare in the English countryside. A light-colored moth was difficult to see against the clean bark. Which moth would most likely be noticed by a hungry bird?

    22. 2. Fitness- measure of ability to survive and produce more offspring relative to other members of a population

    23. C. Natural selection acts on existing variation 1. Natural selection acts on phenotypes (not genetic material itself) 2. As environment changes, different traits will become beneficial.

    24. IV. Evidence of Evolution (10.4) A. Evidence for evolution in Darwin’s time came from several sources 1.Fossils- supported Darwin’s “descent with modification”

    25. 2. Geography- Darwin realized that finches found on Galapagos Islands closely resembled those found on mainland.

    26. a. Over time new traits became well established in separate island populations b. The different environments on each island led tospecific adaptations in diets, habits, and beak shapes

    27. 3. Embryology- Similarities in embryos showed relation-ships between organisms and possible common ancestor

    28. 4. Anatomy- Some of Darwin’s best evidence came from comparing body parts of different species a. homologous structures- features that are similar in structure but have different functions (suggested common ancestor) (i.e. forelimbs of vertebrates)

    29.  b. analogous structures-structures that perform similar function but are not similar in origin (i.e. wings of bats and insects)

    30. B. Structural patterns are clues to the history of a species 1. vestigial structures- structures or organs that seem to lack any useful function that had a function in early ancestor 2. Examples of vestigial structures found in many organisms. (e.g. human appendix, wings of Ostriches)

    31. V. Evolutionary Biology Today (10.5) A. Fossils provide a record of evolution 1. Paleontology- study of fossils or extinct organisms 2. Fossil evidence shows change in forms over time. 3. New fossils found that fill in “gaps” (transitional forms)

    32. B. Molecular and genetic evidence support fossil and anatomical evidence Human chromosomes (23 pair) Chimp chromosomes (24 pair)

    33. 1. DNA sequence analysis- more closely related have more similar DNA

    34.  2. Pseudogenes- genes that no longer function. Similarities in organisms suggest common ancestor

    35. 3. Protein comparisons- Similarities in proteins found in specific cell types suggest common ancestor

    36.  C. Evolution unites all fields of biology 1. New discoveries and tools helping to study mechanisms of evolution 2. Principles used to study medicine, disease, ecology, etc. To avoid going extinct a population must not only survive, but also reproduce. Yale's Paul Turner, associate professor of ecology and evolutionary biology, tested the practicality of luring a virus population into the wrong cells within the human body, thus preventing virus reproduction and alleviating disease.

    37. Chapter 10 Principles of Evolution

    38. During the voyage of the Beagle, many of Darwin's observations were made a. in England. b. in North America. c. on the Galápagos Islands. d. in Africa.

    39. During the voyage of the Beagle, many of Darwin's observations were made a. in England. b. in North America. c. on the Galápagos Islands. d. in Africa.

    40. The species of finches that Darwin found on the Galápagos Islands displayed different structural adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin noted was the a. similarities of the birds' embryos. b. birds' differently shaped beaks. c. length of the birds' necks. d. number of eggs in each bird's nest.

    41. The species of finches that Darwin found on the Galápagos Islands displayed different structural adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin noted was the a. similarities of the birds' embryos. b. birds' differently shaped beaks. c. length of the birds' necks. d. number of eggs in each bird's nest.

    42. Hutton and Lyell's work suggested that a. Earth is millions of years old. b. Earth is several thousand years old. c. fossils are not the remains of living things. d. all rocks on Earth contain fossils.

    43. Hutton and Lyell's work suggested that a. Earth is millions of years old. b. Earth is several thousand years old. c. fossils are not the remains of living things. d. all rocks on Earth contain fossils.

    44. Hutton and Lyell's work was important to Darwin because it a. was the first to attempt to explain catastrophic events such as earthquakes. b. completely explained the nature of all geologic events on Earth. c. suggested that Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred. d. refuted the work of Wallace, which relied on misunderstandings about geology.

    45. Hutton and Lyell's work was important to Darwin because it a. was the first to attempt to explain catastrophic events such as earthquakes. b. completely explained the nature of all geologic events on Earth. c. suggested that Earth was old enough for evolution to have occurred. d. refuted the work of Wallace, which relied on misunderstandings about geology.

    46. Which is a major concept included in Lamarck's theory of evolution? a. Change is the result of mutations. b. Body structure can change according to the needs of the organism. c. Selection pressures decrease the rate of evolution. d. Sexual reproduction is the genetic basis for variations.

    47. Which is a major concept included in Lamarck's theory of evolution? a. Change is the result of mutations. b. Body structure can change according to the needs of the organism. c. Selection pressures decrease the rate of evolution. d. Sexual reproduction is the genetic basis for variations.

    48. The economist Malthus suggested that a. people die faster than babies are born. b. babies are born faster than people die. c. in the 1700s, Earth was overrun by people. d. in the 2000s, the seas will be overrun by oysters.

    49. The economist Malthus suggested that a. people die faster than babies are born. b. babies are born faster than people die. c. in the 1700s, Earth was overrun by people. d. in the 2000s, the seas will be overrun by oysters.