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Principles of Evolution

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  1. Principles of Evolution Chapters: 12, 13, 14

  2. How did life begin?

  3. The Bubble Model (1986) by Lerman • Chemical reactions of the primordial soup took place inside bubbles of fat molecules. • See page 255 in book

  4. Primordial Soup (A.I. Oparin) • Early Earth atmosphere (N, Methane, ammonia) • Energy from sun, volcanoes, lightning • Chemical reactions created amino acids • Rain washed these into the ocean • Created the primordial soup.

  5. A Brief History of Life • animation

  6. Early Organisms • Prokaryotes are oldest organisms (3.5 billion years old) • Cyanobacteria – photosynthetic bacteria • Impact on atmosphere: Oxygen!!!!

  7. Groups of bacteria • Eubacteria- “true bacteria”, ex. Ecoli • Archaebacteria – ancient bacteria,

  8. Then came the eukaryotes • Appeared 1.5 billion years ago

  9. Life moved onto land!!! Ozone layer formed

  10. The Theory of Evolution Chapter 13

  11. 13-1 Where did the theory of natural selection come from? • Pre Darwin: • (1809) Jean Baptiste de Lamark • Variation hypothesis – evolution occurs through acquired characteristics (body changes over time) • Example: giraffe neck length

  12. Larmark: Aquired Characteristics

  13. Evolution by Natural Selection • Charles Darwin (1859) • Journey of the H.M.S. Beagle – recorded all the plants and animals on journey

  14. Darwin’s Observations • Observed gradual change – found fossils that were similar, but not identical, to the current day animal • On Galapagos island he observed finches that resembled those in South America

  15. Darwin’s finches: notice the beaks

  16. I. Natural Selection- survival of the fittest (Darwin) 1. Variations exist within populations

  17. Theory of Natural Selection 2. Some variations (mutations) are more advantageous for survival and reproduction than others

  18. Theory of Natural Selection 3. “fit”organisms survive and reproduce – genes are passed to offspring

  19. Isolation- leads to a new species, two population of same species can not breed • Extinction- leads to species replacement

  20. Adaptations • Changing of a species that results in its being better suited to its environment (choosen by natural selection) • Mutations

  21. Peppered Moth Example

  22. Structural Adaptations Mimicry Camouflage Warning coloration

  23. Structural Adaptation: 1. Mimicry Example: Viseroy and Monarch Butterflies

  24. Viceroy Monarch

  25. 2. Camouflage • adaptations that allows an organism to "blend" into it's environment • Examples:

  26. More examples of Camo.: Sea Dragon

  27. Structural Adaptation: Warning: Standing out Poison Arrow Frog

  28. Warning and Mimicry

  29. A regal ring-necked snake displaying its aposematic coloration

  30. Physiological Adaptation Changes in metabolic processes: venom, warm vs. cold blooded

  31. More physiological adaptations:

  32. Behavioral Adaptations:examples

  33. Jaguar – hunting methods – one bite – occipital crunchers

  34. Evidence of Evolution

  35. Fossil Evidence • Missing links between groups of organisms. • Compare fossils with current day species

  36. Structures and Evolution • Homologous structures – agreeing • Similar structures and derived from the same body part. • Ex. Bone structure

  37. Vestigial structures • Remnant of another structure • No function, reduced in size • Ex. Appendix, tailbones,wisdom teeth in humans, hipbones in whales,

  38. Tonsils Coccyx (tail bone) Appendix Little toe Wisdom teeth Nipples on males Nodes on ears "Darwin's points" Ear muscles for wiggling Body hair Some Alleged Vestigial Organs in Man

  39. Darwin’s Points

  40. Human Appendix

  41. Human Tonsils

  42. Analogous Structures :opposite • Similar in function, but different structures • Wing of butterfly vs wing of a bat

  43. III. Embryo Development • Theory: aquatic, gill breathing vertebrates came before land, air breathers