Outline. Case Studies & Testimonials Case studies as evidence The placebo effect The vividness issue Correlation & Causation Third variable problem Directionality Selection bias. Case studies & testimonials. Case studies in-depth analyses of particular individuals
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Greenberg & Fisher
The limits of biological treatments for psychological distress: comparisons with psychotherapy & panacea (1989)
From placebo to panacea: Putting psychiatric drugs to the test (1997)Placebo effects
Brown (SciAm 1998): expectations have real, measurable effects – prescribe placebos!Placebo effects
You cannot rule out placebo effects in case studies.
People who got the benefit of placebo effects may offer testimonials, not knowing that it wasn’t their therapy that made the difference.Placebo effects- conclusions
He now says that he uses vivid examples to make his points memorable, but he also provides citations to scientific evidence for those points. The latter constitute “proof” of those points.The Vividness Issue
But will this be the case? Will his distinction between “illustration” and “proof” be as important to readers as it is to him?The Vividness Issue
1. Do vivid examples prove claims?
2. Are ordinary people unsophisticated consumers of evidence?
3. Does vividness play any useful role in our thinking?
Wrote a novel about the German occupation of France
Arrested by French police in July 1942 in front of her two young daughters.
Told the daughters she was going away on a tripIrène Némirovsky
Husband arrested, died in Auschwitz gas chamber in November 1942
Daughters guarded by Catholic nuns & priests through the war, and provided for by Irène’s publisher & a friend during and after the warIrène Némirovsky
30 years later, daughter Dianne spent 20 years transcribing Irène’s novel Suite Francaise, working with a magnifying glass.
Book was published in France in 2004, and a tremendous success – though Némirovsky had been long forgotten.
Published in Canada in April 2007Irène Némirovsky
Both are important, but in different ways
So, vividness can be an important aid to thought
And if vivid examples are filtered through many people’s evaluations, perhaps that process produces a useful conclusionVividness
Goldberger example: cause of pellagra
Goldberger used a manipulation to test causal accounts
He put the germ theory in jeopardy – and showed that it was wrong
He also put his diet theory in jeopardy – and showed that it was right.Correlation and Causation
E.g., correlation between # of births in German cities and # of storks in German cities, in 19th century.
# Families # houses # chimneys # storksThird variable problem
We now know that causation works in the other direction: poor reading skill produces impaired eye-movements.Directionality
In self-esteem case, there is evidence that poor academic achievement leads to low SE and good academic achievement leads to high SE (other things being equal)Directionality
E.g., Arizona and respiratory illness.
SAT scores & teacher salaries exampleSelection bias