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Cognition 7A – Memory 7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language. Memory. Memory - the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. Examples:. The Memory Process. Three step process….

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7A – Memory

7B – Thinking, Problems Solving, Creativity, and Language



Memory - the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.


the memory process
The Memory Process

Three step process….

  • Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system.
    • Getting the info into the brain
    • Example:
  • Storage: The retention of encoded material over time.
    • Retaining the info
    • Example:
  • Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage.
    • Getting the info back out
    • Example:
4 memory models
4 Memory Models
  • Information Processing Model
  • Atkinson-Shiffrin 3 stage model
  • Modified Atkinson-Shiffrin
  • Connectivism Model
information processing model of memory
Information Processing Model of Memory
  • Information Processing Model –
    • Simplified Memory Model
      • Encoding –
      • Storage –
      • Retrieval –
    • Analogous to a computer
atkinson and shiffrin s 3 step model of memory
Atkinson and Shiffrin’s 3 Step Model of Memory
  • Sensory memory – brief recording of sensory information
    • Example:
  • Short-term memory – memory that holds few items briefly before info is forgotten
    • Example
  • Long –term memory – relatively permanent and limitless storage of memory.
    • Example
sensory memory
Sensory Memory
  • Sensory Memory - A split second holding tank for ALL sensory information
  • Examples:.
    • Iconic Memory –
    • Echoic Memory –
short term memory
Short Term Memory
  • Short –term memory – memory that holds a few items briefly (7 digits +/-2) until it is forgotten or stored

Short Term Memory Activity

long term memory
Long Term Memory
  • Long-term memory - Unlimited storehouse of knowledge, skills and experiences.
  • Examples:
modified atkinson shiffrin 3 stage model
Modified Atkinson – Shiffrin (3 Stage) Model
  • Working Memory –conscious, active processing of auditory and visual-spatial info. and info from long term memory
  • Our memory sketchpad
  • Example –
connectionism model of memory
Connectionism Model of Memory
  • Connectionism – theory that states that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections between neurons
    • Many neurons may work together to process a single memory
how we encode
How We Encode

2 Types of Encoding

  • Automatically Processing
    • Automatic
    • Parallel
  • Effortful processing
    • Rehearsal
encoding automatic processing
Encoding - Automatic Processing

Automatic Processing - unconscious encoding of incidental information

  • Examples:
  • Time –
  • space –
  • Frequency –
  • well learned info –
automatic processing
Automatic Processing
  • Parallel Processing – processing of many things simultaneously
    • Example:
encoding effortful processing
Encoding – Effortful Processing
  • Effortful Processing –encoding that requires conscious effort and attention
    • Example:
  • Rehearsal – conscious repetition of info to encode it for storage
    • Example:
ebbinghaus s forgetting curve
Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting Curve
  • Ebbinghaus Curve - The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning
  • Overlearning –
effortful processing
Effortful Processing
  • Spacing effect – distributed study is better for long-term recall than massed study (cramming)
    • DO NOT CRAM!!!!!!!!!!!!
    • Example:
  • Testing effect – repeated quizzing or testing improves retention
    • Example:
encoding information
Encoding Information
  • Serial Positioning Effect – we tend to remember the first and last items on a list
    • Primacy Effect – remember items at the beginning of a list
      • Example:
    • Recency Effect – remembering items at the end of a list (most recent
      • Example:
    • Rostorff effect – remembering unique items on a list
      • Example:
what we encode

Encoding Exercise

What We Encode…
  • Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture/visual images.

Example –

2. Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.


3. Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.


visual encoding

Encoding Exercise

Visual Encoding
  • Imagery – visual images help us remember concrete words (aided by semantic encoding)


  • Rosy Retrospection – recalling high points, forgetting theworst
    • Example:

Encoding Exercise

  • Mnemonic Devices – any memory aid that uses visual images and organizational devices
      • Peg word system – memorizing a jingle and using imagery to associate items with the jingle


2. Method of Loci – use visual information with familiar objects on a path to recall info on a list

        • Example:

Encoding Exercise


3. Hierarchies – broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts

  • Example:

4. Chunking- Organizing items into familiar, manageable units (acronyms)

  • Example:

Every Good Boy Does Fine



Acoustic Encoding

  • Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sounds of words.
    • Examples:
semantic encoding
Semantic Encoding
  • Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning.
    • Examples:
      • Self Reference Effect – the tendency to remember information that is “relevant to me” compared to less personally relevant information
        • Example:

Types of Memory

  • Sensory Memory
    • Iconic
    • Echoic
  • Working Memory/Short-term
  • Long-Term Memory
    • Implicit Memory/Procedural Memory
      • Conditioned Memories
    • Explicit Memory
      • Episodic Memory
      • Semantic Memory
      • Flashbulb Memories
      • Prospective memory
sensory memory1
Sensory Memory
  • Sperling’s memory experiment
    • Momentary photographic memory
      • After flashing an image, participants had a momentary mental image of all 9 letters
  • Iconic memory – photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
    • Examples:
sensory memory2
Sensory Memory
  • Echoic memory – auditory memory lasting no more than a 3-4 seconds (mind’s echo chamber)
    • Example:
working short term memory
Working/Short-Term Memory
  • Duration – Brief (30 sec or less) without active processing
  • Capacity - Limited
  • The list of magic sevens
long term memory1
Long-Term Memory
  • Duration –
  • Capacity -
types of long term memory
Types of Long Term Memory
  • Implicit Memory/Procedural Memory
    • Conditioned Memories
  • Explicit Memory
    • Episodic Memory
    • Semantic Memory
    • Flashbulb Memories
implicit memories
Implicit Memories
  • Implicit/Procedural Memories – without conscious recall
      • Examples:
    • Conditioned Memories – memories from conditioned learning
      • Example:
explicit memories
Explicit Memories
  • Explicit Memories – memories of facts and experiences, consciously recalled
    • Processed by the


    • Infantile amnesia– can’t remember events before age 3
explicit memories1
Explicit Memories
  • Episodic Memories- memories of autobiographical events, situations, and experiences
    • Example:
  • Semantic Memories – memory of words, meanings, and understandings
    • Example:
explicit memories2
Explicit Memories
  • FlashbulbMemories – clear moment of a emotionally significant event
    • Example:
  • Prospective Memory – remembering to perform a planned action
    • Example:
storing memories
Storing Memories

Memory trace – memory is distributed across groups of neurons

Long Term-Potentiation – Increases in synaptic firing potential of a neuron by increasing the number of receptors on the receiving neuron.

  • Memory boosting drugs
    • CREB –
    • Glutamate –
  • Amnesia – loss of memory
    • Retrograde Amnesia – inability to remember past events
      • Example
    • Anterograde Amnesia – inability to create new memories
      • Examples:

Recognition - you must identify the target from possible targets


  • Recall - you must retrieve the information from your memory
  • Example:
ways to help you retrieve info
Ways to help you retrieve info
  • Relearning – learning material for the second time, saves time.
    • Example:
  • Retrieval Cues – anchor points used to access target info for retrieval later
    • Example:
  • Priming – unconscious activation of associations in memory
    • Example:
the context matters
The Context Matters!!!
  • Mood Congruent Memory – recalling memories consistent with current mood
    • Example:
  • State Dependent Memory –learning that takes place in one physiological "state" is generally better remembered later in a similar physiological state
    • Example:
context matters
Context Matters
  • Context-dependent memory - memory is more easily recalled if you are in the same setting that learning took place
    • Example:
  • Déjà vu – eerie sense that you’ve experienced something before
    • Example:
  • Encoding Failures
  • Storage Decay
  • Retrieval Failures
  • Schacter’s sevens sins of memory
    • Sins of Forgetting
    • Sins of distortion
    • Sin of intrusion
encoding failure
Encoding Failure

Example –

What should you do to prevent an encoding failure?


Storage Decay

Ebbinghaus Curve

Apply the Ebbinghaus curve to Psych Class

retrieval failures
Retrieval Failures
  • Retroactive Interference: new information blocks out old information.
    • Example:
  • Proactive Interference: old information blocks out new information.
    • Example:
  • PORN
  • Positive Transfer – old info helps you learn new info
    • Example:
  • Tip of the tongue phenomenon -
motivated forgetting
Motivated Forgetting
  • Motivated Forgetting – revising past memories
  • Repression – (Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory)
  • A defense mechanism that banishes painful memories from consciousness to minimize anxiety
    • Example:
constructive memory
Constructive Memory
  • Constructed memory (Loftus) - a created memory, altered when encoded or retrieved.
    • Misinformation effect
    • Imagination effect
    • Source amnesia
constructive memory1
Constructive Memory
  • Misinformation Effect – incorporating misleading info into a memory


  • Imagination Effect/Inflation – imagining nonexistent actions and events can create false memories


  • Source Amnesia – retaining the memory of an event, but not the source


discerning true and false memories
Discerning True and False Memories
  • Memory studies – real vs. false
  • Eye witness testimony
children s eyewitness recall
Children’s Eyewitness Recall
  • Children’s memories of abuse
    • Suggestibility