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Unit 7B: Cognition: Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, and Language. Unit Overview. Thinking Language Thinking and Language. Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation. Introduction. Cognition Cognitive psychologists. Thinking. Concepts.
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Unit Overview • Thinking • Language • Thinking and Language Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
Introduction • Cognition • Cognitive psychologists
Concepts • Concepts • Category hierarchies • prototype
Solving Problems • Task: move the tower from the left peg to the middle peg, moving only one disk at a time and never putting a larger disk on a smaller one
Solving ProblemsStrategies • Algorithms • Step-by-step • Heuristic • Insight
Solving ProblemsCreativity • Creativity • Strernberg’s five components
Assuming that each card has a triangle on one side and a circle on the other, which card or cards need to be turned over to test this statement: ‘Every card that has a black triangle on one side has a red circle on the other’
Solving ProblemsObstacles to Problem Solving • Confirmation bias • Fixation • Mental set • Functional fixedness
Making Decisions and Forming Judgments Using and Misusing Heuristics • The Representative Heuristic
Write down your answer – either ‘a’ or ‘b’ • Linda is 31, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy in college. As a student, she was deeply concerned with discrimination and other social issues, and she participated in antinuclear demonstrations. Which statement is more likely? A. Linda is a bank teller B. Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement
Making Decisions and Forming Judgments Using and Misusing Heuristics • The Availability Heuristic
Making Decisions and Forming JudgmentsOverconfidence • Overconfidence
Making Decisions and Forming JudgmentsThe Belief Perseverance Phenomenon • Belief perseverance • Consider the opposite
Making Decisions and Forming JudgmentsThe Perils and Powers of Intuition • Intuition • Unconscious intuition
Intuition uses past knowledge – we may make mistakes • But it allows us to quickly respond so are thought is more automatic.
Making Decisions and Forming JudgmentsThe Effects of Framing • Framing • Framing experiments
LanguageIntroduction • Language
Language • With person next to you share what you did on Friday and Saturday using telegraphic speech. • Don’t know what that means? LOOK IT UP
Language StructurePhonemes • Phoneme • English about 40 phonemes • Learning another language’s phonemes
Language StructureMorphemes • Morpheme • Includes prefixes and suffixes
Language StructureGrammar • Grammar • Semantics • Syntax
Language DevelopmentWhen Do We Learn Language? • Receptive language • Productive language • Babbling stage • One-word stage • Two-word stage • Telegraphic speech
Language DevelopmentExplaining Language Development • Skinner: Operant Learning • Learning principles • Association • Imitation • Reinforcement
Language DevelopmentExplaining Language Development • Chomsky: Inborn Universal Grammar • Language acquisition device • Universal grammar
Language DevelopmentExplaining Language Development • Statistical Learning and Critical Periods • Statistical learning • Critical (sensitive) period
Language Development • Statistical Learning • Statistical aspects of human speech – breaking down syllables to create meaning and breaks in sentences • Evidence? • 8 month infants: recognize three-syllable sequences that appeared repeatedly (measuring attention) • 7 month infants: recognize different sequences/language patterns – ABA verse ABB pattern (li-na-li/wo-fe-fe) • What does this show? Nature or Nurture? • Built in ability to learn grammatical rules (Noam Chomsky)
Critical Period • No exposure to language (spoken or signed) before age seven: lose ability to master ANY language • No stimulation to a brain early on = language learning capacity never fully develops • Second languages? • Sign language? • Conclusion? Is there a critical period of language?
Language Influences Thinking • Whorf’s linguistic determinism • Bilingual advantage
Thinking in Images • Implicit memory
Thinking and Language • Benjamin Lee Whorf: • Linguistic determinism hypothesis • Language determines thought • Evidence? Culture differences • How many words a culture has to describe something will change our thoughts on it • Book example: Papua New Guinea Berinmo tribe: distinguish between two shades of yellow • Bilingual advantage: • Canadian program:
Taste • Write down the difference between Pepsi and Coke • Typically our responses are not very useful: vague and general comments about sweetness or level of carbonation – only an expert taster will pick up on the subtle nuances that distinguish these soft drinks
Thinking in Images • Helps! How?
Question • Which comes first? Thought or Language? • Thinking affects our language, which then affects our thought -Would not develop language without the thought first – would not have the thought without the language to express it!
Create a timeline • Part 1: Create a timeline demonstrating the development of language structure but also incorporating important concepts into a cohesive timeline. Must include: ages, examples of each stage/concept, and pictures. • Part 2: Compare B.F. Skinner and Noam Chomsky’s theory of language development Examples Picture for each
Cognition = the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Concept = a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Prototype = a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
Algorithm = a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier – but also more error-prone – use of heuristics.
Heuristic = a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
Insight = a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
Creativity = the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
Confirmation Bias = a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.