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Design & Screen Organization. Some Basic Human Characteristics. Humans are limited in their capacity to process information. People are always learning. People use prior learning to support new learning. People often learn by doing People like to solve problems

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some basic human characteristics
Some Basic Human Characteristics
  • Humans are limited in their capacity to process information.
  • People are always learning.
  • People use prior learning to support new learning.
  • People often learn by doing
  • People like to solve problems
  • People don’t like unsolvable problems.
some basic user characteristics
Some Basic User Characteristics
  • Mental Models
    • Users are always building models of their world.
    • Users don’t mind if something doesn’t make sense
      • they build their own model to make it make sense
    • Users prefer simple models
      • simple and working solution (even it is not completely correct)
good bad toolbar icons
Good & Bad toolbar icons

http://www.vbaccelerator.com/home/Resources/Graphics_Library/index.asp

why is this important know your user
WHY IS THIS IMPORTANTKnow Your User
  • Consider the Individuals using the system (i.e. target user)
  • Skill
    • Computer knowledge, other systems they use, education, keyboarding skills
  • Job – Tasks – Needs
    • Frequency of use, importance to job, structure of job, training, culture
  • Psychological characteristics
    • Motivation, patience, expectations, learning style
  • Physical attributes
    • Age, gender,disabilities
norman s design principles
Norman’s Design Principles
  • The Design principles are based on
    • Understanding of psychology of users.
    • Understanding of how people interact with the environment
    • Understanding of how people response to good design and bad design
norman s design principles1
Norman’s Design Principles
  • Providing a good conceptual model
  • Make things visible
  • Managing a natural mapping
  • Providing feedback
  • Supporting automatic learning
  • Providing forcing functions
    • Utilizing constraints
conceptual model

Gap

System Image

User’s

conceptual

model

Designer’s

conceptual

model

Conceptual Model
  • the underlying understanding of how a technology or device works

Q: What do large gaps cause?

three conceptual models

Design model

User’s model

Designer

User

System

System

image

Three Conceptual Models
mapping
Mapping
  • Mapping indicates the relationship between the action of the user and the result of the action.
  • Natural mapping
    • The user’s natural understanding of action results
      • RED for stop and GREEN for go (cultural understanding)
mapping example
Mapping Example
  • Present the font choices using the fonts themselves

Times New RomanArial

Arial Black

Courier New

Old English

Monotype Sorts

Univers

Direct Manipulation

mapping example1

F1

F2

F3

F4

F5

F6

F7

F8

Mapping Example
  • Function keys
    • the mapping is somewhat arbitrary
      • F3 for CUT and F4 for PASTE ?
    • Not a natural mapping!
    • No memory aids
    • What happens when you want to cut but you click on F4 (paste)?

Logical Association

forcing function
Forcing Function
  • Design that prevents users from taking actions which are inappropriate or which would lead to error
    • Appliance shut off when opened
      • Microwaves
      • Washing Machines
    • Radio buttons
      • Choose one and one only
forcing function1
Forcing Function
  • Good example of a forcing function design:
    • Menu bar - grays out and prevents the selection of those items inapplicable to the current context

New

Open

Close

Save

Save as...

forcing function2
Forcing Function
  • Lack of Forcing Function
    • DOS - every command is allowed as long as it is typed correctly
    • del *.*
    • deletes all files
feedback
Feedback
  • Gives a user an immediate indication of the result of an action
    • Pick up the phone
      • Hear the tone
    • Select text
      • reverse video for

selected text

affordance
Affordance
  • Make things visible
  • Provide indication of how something can be used
affordances
Affordances
  • What do you need to know?
    • Which side opens?
    • Do I push or pull?
  • Affordances
    • Knobs, Plates, Bars
      • Size and placement
affordances1
Affordances
  • Buttons
    • Flat
    • Shadowed
  • Hyperlinks
    • Plain text
    • Marked
  • Cursor shapes
automatic learning
Automatic Learning
  • People automatically connect their actions with screen displays through repetitive patterns of actions (reinforce learning).
    • A design should provide consistencies that help the user learn to use the device

File Edit View Insert Format Tools

automatic learning1
Automatic Learning
  • Good example of Automatic Learning:
    • user actions always involve same number of steps, e.g., select object, select general action to perform on object, select specific case of action
    • Consistence and standards
      • If you know how to use one window application, it will be easy for you to learn another one.
automatic learning2
Automatic Learning
  • Example of non-use of Automatic Learning :
    • Screens which change standard menu item locations from display to display
three conceptual models1
Three Conceptual Models

Design Model

User’s Model

System Image

Visibility

Action

Feedback

Affordances

Forcing

Functions

Automated Learning

Mapping

knowledge in the head and in the world
Knowledge in the Head and in the World
  • Knowledge in the world
    • is the information in the environment
  • Knowledge in the head
    • is the information that stored in memory
  • Most of the time we need to combine the two types knowledge to operate things. Why?
coin examples
Coin Examples
  • One Cent Coins
    • We recognize coins easily.
    • But we don’t remember all the details.
what information do you memorize
What information do you memorize?
  • Location of element
  • Shape of element
  • Relationship of element to other elements on screen
  • Pictures of icons
  • Colors
human processing of complex visual scenes
Human Processing of Complex Visual Scenes
  • The time it takes to visually understand a scene depends on the number of unique elements that we must visually identify in the scene
    • If we have already learned the scene, we record it as one element
      • Words are recorded as a single element.
    • One graphical component many have several unique components.
control panel for desktop video conferencing
Control Panel for Desktop Video Conferencing
  • Too many elements to learn
  • Elements located all over screen
    • each individual location and relationship to other elements has to be learned
  • Elements not clustered or ordered so that sub-groupings can be learned
organization of screen elements
Organization of Screen Elements
  • Balance
  • Symmetry
  • Regularity
  • Predictability
  • Sequentiality
  • Economy
  • Unity
  • Proportion
  • Simplicity
  • Groupings
balance
Balance
  • Equal weight of screen elements
    • Left to right, top to bottom
slide39

Balance

Unstable

balance1
Balance
  • Left column processed - Right column noted as same
  • Both columns need to be understood by visual processing system
symmetry
Symmetry
  • Replicate elements left and right of the center line
slide43

Symmetric

Asymmetric

symmetry1
Symmetry
  • Left column processed - Right column noted as same
  • Both right & left columns processed plus relationship of right to left
regularity
Regularity
  • Create standard and consistent spacing on horizontal and vertical alignment points
slide46

Regular

Irregular

regularity1
Regularity
  • Left column processed - 2 right columns noted as same
  • Location & size of each object processed
predictability
Predictability
  • Put things in predictable locations on the screen
slide49

Icon

Search for Movies

File Edit View Insert Window Help

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Kung Foo

Grasshopper

Old blind guy

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Kung Foo

Grasshopper

Old blind guy

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Predictable

Spontaneous

predictability1

Icon

Search for Movies

File Edit View Insert Window Help

Enter Keywords:

Kung Foo

Grasshopper

Old blind guy

OK

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Icon

Enter Keywords:

Kung Foo

Grasshopper

Old blind guy

File Edit View Insert WindowHelp

Search for Movies

Cancel

Predictability
  • User expects title & menu bar on top of screen
  • Visual scene needs to be completely processed - objects not in expected places
sequentiality
Sequentiality
  • Guide the eye through the task in an obvious way
    • The Eye is attracted to:
      • bright elements over less bright
      • Isolated elements over grouped
      • graphics before text
      • color before monochrome
      • saturated vs. less saturated colors
      • dark areas before light
      • big vs. small elements
      • unusual shapes over usual ones
slide52

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Sequential

Random

economy
Economy
  • Use as few styles, fonts, colors, display techniques, dialog styles, etc., as possible
slide54

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Economical

Busy

economy of visual elements

NNNN

MMMM

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

MMMM

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

NNNN

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

xxx: ____

Economy of visual elements
  • minimize number of controls
  • include only those that are necessary
    • eliminate, or relegate others to secondary windows
  • minimize clutter
    • so information is not hidden
unity
Unity
  • Make items appear as a unified whole (for visual coherence)
    • Use similar shapes, sizes, or colors
    • Leave less space between screen elements than at the margin of the screen
slide60

Unity

Fragmentation

proportion
Proportion
  • Create groupings of data or text by using aesthetically pleasing proportions
pleasing proportions

Square - 1:1

Square Root of 2 - 1:1.414

Golden Triangle - 1:1.618

Square Root of 3 - 1:1.732

Double Square - 1:2

Pleasing Proportions
simplicity
Simplicity
  • Minimize the number of aligned points
    • Use only a few columns to display screen elements
  • Combine elements to minimize the number of screen objects
    • Within limits of clarity
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Simple

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Complex

simplicity1
Simplicity
  • Only four alignments need to be processed
  • A total of nine alignments need to be processed

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slide67

Size::

Size:

Uniformity:

Height:

Width:

PreserveProportions% of original height% of original width

PreserveProportions% of original% of original

Simple

Complex

groupings
Groupings
  • Use visual arrangements to provide functional groupings of screen elements
    • Align elements in a group
    • Evenly space elements in a group
    • Provide separation between groups
  • Use additional group elements sparingly
    • color & borders add complexity
simple grouping

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Simple Grouping
  • Similar elements aligned vertically
  • Vertical distance between similar objects small
boxed grouping
Boxed Grouping
  • Boxes add additional complexity to form
  • Spatial arrangement adequate

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background grouping
Background Grouping
  • Color adds additional visual complexity
  • Spatial arrangement adequate

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