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Chapter 22 The Atmosphere

Chapter 22 The Atmosphere. Composition of the Atmosphere. Permanent: Nitrogen-78% Oxygen-21%, Others - 1% Variable: Water vapor (H 2 O) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Ozone (O 3 ) Particulates. Composition of the Atmosphere. 99 % permanent gases and 1% variable (trace) gases.

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Chapter 22 The Atmosphere

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  1. Chapter 22The Atmosphere

  2. Composition of the Atmosphere • Permanent: • Nitrogen-78% • Oxygen-21%, • Others - 1% • Variable: • Water vapor (H2O) • Carbon dioxide (CO2) • Ozone (O3) • Particulates

  3. Composition of the Atmosphere

  4. 99% permanentgases and 1% variable(trace) gases. • Permanent gases - constant concentration with time & space. • Variable gases - varying concentration depending upon where/when you are. • All weather and climate are associated the 1% variable gases.

  5. Parts of Atmosphere important to weather 1. Water Vapor - more in warmer locations - forms clouds and drives weather - absorbs heat to keep earth warm

  6. Water Vapor Imagery

  7. 2. Carbon Dioxide • Absorbs energy from the earth

  8. 3. Ozone • Ozone high in the atmosphere is good • Absorbs harmful UV rays • Ozone here is formed naturally

  9. - Ozone low in the atmosphere is bad • creates smog • made by humans

  10. Particulates - Volcanic dust, ash from fires, pollen - Absorb water and helps to form clouds - Absorbs/reflects sunlight

  11. Atmospheric Pressure The weight of the air above a point Decreases with altitude Also changes with temperature and amount of water vapor in the air Measured with a barometer Standard Atmospheric Pressure = 1 atm or 760 mm of mercury or 1000mb

  12. Atmospheric pressure variation with altitude

  13. Measuring Pressure Mercurial Barometer -Tube filled with mercury -air pressure pushes on mercury from bottom -causes mercury to rise and fall

  14. Aneroid Barometer • Metal expands and contracts with changes in pressure • Causes pointer to move so pressure can be read

  15. Barograph • Recording aneroid barometer • Keeps track of pressure over several days

  16. Layers of the Atmosphere

  17. Troposphere • Weather Sphere • Bottom Layer • Temperature decreases with height • Most clouds • Most water vapor • Most airplanes fly here

  18. Stratosphere • Ozone Layer • Increase Temp with height because ozone absorbs UV

  19. Mesosphere • Temperature decreases to coldest point at the mesopause (-90⁰C) • Many meteors burn up in this layer.

  20. Thermosphere • Air is very thin. • Temperature increases due to absorption of solar energy by nitrogen and oxygen • Satellites orbit here

  21. Ionosphere – part of the thermosphere • Electrically charged layer • AM radio waves reflect off of here • Causes auroras

  22. Create your OWN mnemonic phrase to memorize the order of the five layers. For example: T = Troposphere = Terribly S = Strostosphere = Scary M = Mesosphere = Monsters T = Thermosphere = Terrorize E = Exosphere = Earth

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