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Ancient Roman Mythology. By: Kristyn, Misha, and Selina. How did the God’s come to be?. “ In the begining there was a deep nothingness known as Chaos. The out of this dark, empty space, two powerful beings slowly emerged” Gaia (motherly goddes of earth) Tartarus (Ruler of the underground)

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ancient roman mythology
Ancient Roman Mythology
  • By: Kristyn, Misha, and Selina
how did the god s come to be
How did the God’s come to be?
  • “ In the begining there was a deep nothingness known as Chaos. The out of this dark, empty space, two powerful beings slowly emerged”
    • Gaia (motherly goddes of earth)
    • Tartarus (Ruler of the underground)
    • Eros (god of love) emerged next and created a hunsband for Gaia : Uranus
      • Gaia and Uranus had many children:
        • 12 + 3 Cyclopes, 3 monsters
how did the god s come to be1
How did the God’s come to be?
  • Uranus hated the sight of his children
    • Cronus one of the 12 titans overthrew him and beame the new ruler of the earth and sky
    • Cronus married Rhea
      • He had been told that of of his children would kill him so he decided to kill all of his children at birth
      • Rhea asked her mother Gaia for help
      • Gaia took Rhea and to the island of crete where the baby was born
how did the god s come to be2
How did the God’s come to be?
  • Jupiter learned of his father and when old enough decided to take revenge
  • Jupiter posioned him
    • Cronus began to choke then clutched his stomach and roared
      • He vomited up first a massive stone, then the rest of his children
        • Poseidon, Pluto, Juno, Vesta, and ceres (the new gods with zeus as their leader)
  • Jupiter created a kingdom on top of Mount Olympus. The olympians also included gods Apollo, Mars, Mercury, Minerva, Diana and Venus
the gods of rome
The Gods of Rome
  • Jupiter
    • Master of the gods
    • God of the sky (thunder and lightning)
    • Symbols: Thunderbolt, Eagle, Oak
the gods of rome1
The Gods of Rome
  • Juno
    • Queen of the Gods
    • Goddess of women and childbirth
    • Symbols: Pomegrante, Peacock
the gods of rome2
The Gods of Rome
  • Mars
    • God of war
    • Agricultural guardian
    • Second in command to Zeus
    • Symbol:
the gods of rome3
The Gods of Rome
  • Venus
    • Goddess of love and beauty
    • Mother of Cupid
    • Symbol:
the first humans
The First Humans
  • Zeus tried to make humans 4 times
    • The Golden Age: Did absolutely nothing, eventually died but spirits live on
    • The Silver age : Men more like animals --> destroyed by Jupiter
    • The Bronze age: Smart but loved fighting. Killed each other off
the first humans1
The First Humans
  • The Heroic Age: SUCESSFUL!
    • Jupiter refused to humans them fire in fear they would become too powerful
      • Prometheus worked on the side of the humans :Fire, Animal Sacrifice
        • He was punished for these deeds with endless tourcher
    • Humans punished with the creation of The Women (Pandora)
pandora s box
Pandora’s Box
  • Jupiter gave pandora a golden box and told her never to open it since she has given everything that she could possibly need
  • Epimetheus was Pandora’s husband and was given the key to the box
  • One night Pandora stole the key and opend the box
    • Out of it came all the things that make people suffer
      • Sickness, hatred, greed, poverty, jealousy, and distrust
    • Pandora did not let hope out, making life bearable for humans
the ultimate holiday new years
The Ultimate Holiday- New Years!
  • The month of March, named after the Roman God of War, Mars, was filled with festivals, celebrations fasts, and even bloodletting!
  • One of the biggest festivals was THE FESTIVAL OF ANNA PERNNA to celebrate the news years!
    • The festival occurs on the Ides of March.
    • The identity of Anna Pernna is unknown, however many speculate that she is a personification of the new year.
    • The festival includes drunk-ness and sexual and verbal freedoms typical of carnivalesque holidays like Lupercalia.
      • An example is the inversion of gender role
    • The Romans even needed a holiday just to rest from all the activities in march!
the mundus is opened october 5
The Mundus is Opened: October 5
  • One of three times a year when the Mundus (gate to the underwolrd is opened)
    • The dead may communicate with the living
    • No public business could be preformed,
    • No battle fought
    • No ships set sail
    • No marraiges
  • Roman rituals and festivals are often longer than a single day and could last up to a week.
  • Through out the year Romans dedicated days to honor each god.During festivals slaves were excused from laws and restrictions
rituals lupercalia february 15
Rituals - Lupercalia (February 15)
  • Lupericalia has roots to pre-Roman traditions
  • In Rome the ritual was used to purify the people from curses, bad luck, and infertility
  • The fesival begins with the sacrifice of goats and dogs by two chosen young men.
    • After the sacrifice, the men wipe the blood on their forehead(to symbolize human sacrifice) then wipe themselves clean with wool dipped in milk.
    • The young men dressed themself in the skin of the sacrificed goat and proceeded to run around the city walls striking woman with the thong wolf skin
      • A strike was said to prevent infertility in women
The objective was to secure the fruitfulnes of the land, the increase of the flock and the prosperity of the whole people
  • December 17
    • Like the Christian Christmas it was a serious day in that it honored saturn
    • However also like Christmas, it was filled with celebration that lasted for a week!
  • Every Roman house had a sacred fire.
  • It was believed that the lit fire protected the family and if the fire went out, terrible things could happen to them.
  • Fire had to stay pure; no bad thing could be done in the presence of the sacred fire.
  • Believed it to have the power to bring them good health as well as protection.
  • In return, the Romans made offerings of flowers, wine, victims, and fruit.
birth dies lustricus day of purification
Birth (dies lustricus  day of purification)
  • Naming of baby is far more important than birth of baby.
  • Babies were given 3 names:
    • Praenomen: First/Personal name
    • Nomen: Clan of Child’s family
    • Cognomen: Family Branch
      • Ex: Marcus Tullius Cicero
  • Bulla: locket that contained charms to ward off the power of evil.
    • Gold  Wealthy, Leather  Poor
    • Boys: only to remove bulla after receiving a toga.
      • Toga signifies Roman citizenship
    • Girls: only to remove on wedding day.
  • Confarratio: oldest and most sacred form of marriage
    • Divorce was only an option for men incase of infertility or adultery.
    • Man is master of woman
  • Occurred in June-July
  • Sacrifices for gods and wedding feasts
    • Similar to any other festival of ancient roman religion.
  • Once a member of a family died, they became one of the family deities.
  • The family made many offerings to them and asked them for protection.
  • Ancient Roman Law:  if you stepped on a tomb of someone who wasn't in your family you must repent or the dead would haunt you. 
  • A funeral was a requirement, or the spirits ignored and punished families by causing pain and diseases until the funeral was established
what happens when one dies
What happens when one dies?
  • The soul begins the journey to the rivers styx.
    • There the dead would be met by Charon the ferrymen.
    • When someone died a coin would be placed in their mouth which would then be given to Charon.
    • After crossing the river, the dead passed Cerberus, a three headed dog owned by the god of the underworld,
      • The dog was believed to be a judge of character
        • He would become ferocious to people who had committed wrong doings in their lifetime.
what happens when one dies1
What happens when one dies?
  • The next stage was judgment
    • There were three judges of life
    • Usually, one would be given water from the River Lethe which the Romans believed made a person forget their past life.
      • Souls were then sent to different places based on their good or bad deeds.
        • Elysian Fields. This was a place for warriors and heros.
          • It was generally believed that good Emperors also met their final resting place here.
resting places continued
Resting Places Continued
  • The Plain of Asphodel
    • Good people lived as Shades.
  • Tartarus was reserved for the evil.
    • Punished until one had repaid their debt to society.
    • The Romans did not adhere to the idea of a Hell but this believe correlates with the dogma of Purgatory as adhered to by the Roman Catholic Church.
    • Persephone, the Queen of the Underworld Acted as a reprieve .
    • She would bribe for a specific soul to be sent back across the Styx to life again
    • Reincarnation?
rituals parentalia
Rituals: Parentalia
  • February 13-21: Romans remember their dead
    • On the 21 of February: Romans visited cemeteries, placed flowers, milk, and wine on graves
    • On the 22 of February: Family Reunions where offerings were made to household deities
  • Mithras was a Persian God from the Zoroastrian pantheon
    • Zoroastrianismis a Persian religion based on the balance of good and evil
    • Mithras was a helper and assistant to the power of good against the power of evil
  • Mithras was born from a rock
    • His main service in the fight against evil was the slay of a bull created by the evil lord.
    • He killed the bull in a cave, and from its blood sprang all life
mithras in rome
Mithras in Rome
  • Mithraism came to Rome in the first century BCE and gained a following from:
    • soldiers, public servants and merchants.
  • It peaked in the third century before being supressed along with every other non-christian religion.
  • Little is known about Mithraism and it is considered a Mystery religionin which the meaning of its iconography and rituals was a secrete known only to initates
mithraism what we know
Mithraism - What we know
  • Member had to go through a seven step initiation
  • Ceremonies and rituals were held in caves similar to the one where Mithras was described killing the bull
  • Mithraism is known almost entirely from physical artifacts and dedicatory inscriptions.
  • It is also mentioned in works by: Pultarch, Porphyry and Origen
  • This religion shows that the Romans interacted and shared with other cultures!
multiple choice question 1
Multiple Choice- Question 1
  • All of the following were names of Jupiter’s attempt to make humans EXCEPT
    • The Bronze Age
    • The Golden Age
    • The Glorious Age
    • The Heroic Age
multiple choice question 2
Multiple Choice- Question 2
  • What remained in Pandora’s Box
    • Evil
    • Hope
    • Success
    • Failure
multiple choice question 3
Multiple Choice- Question 3
  • The Festival if Anna Pernna was held on
    • The Ides of December
    • The Ides of February
    • The Ides of March
    • The Ides of June
multiple choice question 4
Multiple Choice- Question 4
  • According to the Romans the soul begins its journey to what river after death?
    • Styx
    • Mars
    • Charon
    • Stones
multiple choice question 5
Multiple Choice- Question 5
  • In the Lupercalia ritual, what two animals are sacrificed?
    • Goat and Pig
    • Wolf and Dog
    • Bird and Cat
    • Goat and Dog
works cited
Works Cited
  • Gill, N.S. "Roman Burial Practices."Ancient/Classical History. The New York Times Company, 2011. Web. 18 Sep 2011.
  • Bassette, D. "Religion in Ancient Rome." N.p., 04/19/2000. Web. 18 Sep 2011.
  • O'Connell, Amanda. "Paganism; Past & Present." Ancient Roman Religion. Oracle, Somerset College, 1999. Web. 18 Sep. 2011.
  • Bytes, Bizarre. "A Halloween History."Bizarre Bytes. Bizarre Bytes, 18/10/2010. Web. 18 Sep 2011.
  • Stewart. Roman Mythology. New York: Peter Bedrick, 1969. Print.
  • Bingham, Jane. Classical Myth: a Treasury of Greek and Roman Legends, Art, and History. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2008. Print.
  • Hunt, Jenni. "Major Holidays of Rome October (Mensis October)." Major Holidays of Rome October. A Druid Fellowship, Inc. Web. 18 Sep. 2011.