Ancient Roman Mythology • By: Kristyn, Misha, and Selina
How did the God’s come to be? • “ In the begining there was a deep nothingness known as Chaos. The out of this dark, empty space, two powerful beings slowly emerged” • Gaia (motherly goddes of earth) • Tartarus (Ruler of the underground) • Eros (god of love) emerged next and created a hunsband for Gaia : Uranus • Gaia and Uranus had many children: • 12 + 3 Cyclopes, 3 monsters
How did the God’s come to be? • Uranus hated the sight of his children • Cronus one of the 12 titans overthrew him and beame the new ruler of the earth and sky • Cronus married Rhea • He had been told that of of his children would kill him so he decided to kill all of his children at birth • Rhea asked her mother Gaia for help • Gaia took Rhea and to the island of crete where the baby was born
Rhea gave Cronus a bundle of rocks which he ate convinced it was his last child, Jupiter.
How did the God’s come to be? • Jupiter learned of his father and when old enough decided to take revenge • Jupiter posioned him • Cronus began to choke then clutched his stomach and roared • He vomited up first a massive stone, then the rest of his children • Poseidon, Pluto, Juno, Vesta, and ceres (the new gods with zeus as their leader) • Jupiter created a kingdom on top of Mount Olympus. The olympians also included gods Apollo, Mars, Mercury, Minerva, Diana and Venus
The Gods of Rome • Jupiter • Master of the gods • God of the sky (thunder and lightning) • Symbols: Thunderbolt, Eagle, Oak
The Gods of Rome • Juno • Queen of the Gods • Goddess of women and childbirth • Symbols: Pomegrante, Peacock
The Gods of Rome • Mars • God of war • Agricultural guardian • Second in command to Zeus • Symbol:
The Gods of Rome • Venus • Goddess of love and beauty • Mother of Cupid • Symbol:
The First Humans • Zeus tried to make humans 4 times • The Golden Age: Did absolutely nothing, eventually died but spirits live on • The Silver age : Men more like animals --> destroyed by Jupiter • The Bronze age: Smart but loved fighting. Killed each other off
The First Humans • The Heroic Age: SUCESSFUL! • Jupiter refused to humans them fire in fear they would become too powerful • Prometheus worked on the side of the humans :Fire, Animal Sacrifice • He was punished for these deeds with endless tourcher • Humans punished with the creation of The Women (Pandora)
Pandora’s Box • Jupiter gave pandora a golden box and told her never to open it since she has given everything that she could possibly need • Epimetheus was Pandora’s husband and was given the key to the box • One night Pandora stole the key and opend the box • Out of it came all the things that make people suffer • Sickness, hatred, greed, poverty, jealousy, and distrust • Pandora did not let hope out, making life bearable for humans
The Ultimate Holiday- New Years! • The month of March, named after the Roman God of War, Mars, was filled with festivals, celebrations fasts, and even bloodletting! • One of the biggest festivals was THE FESTIVAL OF ANNA PERNNA to celebrate the news years! • The festival occurs on the Ides of March. • The identity of Anna Pernna is unknown, however many speculate that she is a personification of the new year. • The festival includes drunk-ness and sexual and verbal freedoms typical of carnivalesque holidays like Lupercalia. • An example is the inversion of gender role • The Romans even needed a holiday just to rest from all the activities in march!
The Mundus is Opened: October 5 • One of three times a year when the Mundus (gate to the underwolrd is opened) • The dead may communicate with the living • No public business could be preformed, • No battle fought • No ships set sail • No marraiges
Rituals • Roman rituals and festivals are often longer than a single day and could last up to a week. • Through out the year Romans dedicated days to honor each god.During festivals slaves were excused from laws and restrictions
Rituals - Lupercalia (February 15) • Lupericalia has roots to pre-Roman traditions • In Rome the ritual was used to purify the people from curses, bad luck, and infertility • The fesival begins with the sacrifice of goats and dogs by two chosen young men. • After the sacrifice, the men wipe the blood on their forehead(to symbolize human sacrifice) then wipe themselves clean with wool dipped in milk. • The young men dressed themself in the skin of the sacrificed goat and proceeded to run around the city walls striking woman with the thong wolf skin • A strike was said to prevent infertility in women
The objective was to secure the fruitfulnes of the land, the increase of the flock and the prosperity of the whole people
Saturnalia • December 17 • Like the Christian Christmas it was a serious day in that it honored saturn • However also like Christmas, it was filled with celebration that lasted for a week!
Fire • Every Roman house had a sacred fire. • It was believed that the lit fire protected the family and if the fire went out, terrible things could happen to them. • Fire had to stay pure; no bad thing could be done in the presence of the sacred fire. • Believed it to have the power to bring them good health as well as protection. • In return, the Romans made offerings of flowers, wine, victims, and fruit.
Birth (dies lustricus day of purification) • Naming of baby is far more important than birth of baby. • Babies were given 3 names: • Praenomen: First/Personal name • Nomen: Clan of Child’s family • Cognomen: Family Branch • Ex: Marcus Tullius Cicero
Birth • Bulla: locket that contained charms to ward off the power of evil. • Gold Wealthy, Leather Poor • Boys: only to remove bulla after receiving a toga. • Toga signifies Roman citizenship • Girls: only to remove on wedding day.
Marriage • Confarratio: oldest and most sacred form of marriage • Divorce was only an option for men incase of infertility or adultery. • Man is master of woman • Occurred in June-July • Sacrifices for gods and wedding feasts • Similar to any other festival of ancient roman religion.
Death • Once a member of a family died, they became one of the family deities. • The family made many offerings to them and asked them for protection. • Ancient Roman Law: if you stepped on a tomb of someone who wasn't in your family you must repent or the dead would haunt you. • A funeral was a requirement, or the spirits ignored and punished families by causing pain and diseases until the funeral was established
What happens when one dies? • The soul begins the journey to the rivers styx. • There the dead would be met by Charon the ferrymen. • When someone died a coin would be placed in their mouth which would then be given to Charon. • After crossing the river, the dead passed Cerberus, a three headed dog owned by the god of the underworld, • The dog was believed to be a judge of character • He would become ferocious to people who had committed wrong doings in their lifetime.
What happens when one dies? • The next stage was judgment • There were three judges of life • Usually, one would be given water from the River Lethe which the Romans believed made a person forget their past life. • Souls were then sent to different places based on their good or bad deeds. • Elysian Fields. This was a place for warriors and heros. • It was generally believed that good Emperors also met their final resting place here.
Resting Places Continued • The Plain of Asphodel • Good people lived as Shades. • Tartarus was reserved for the evil. • Punished until one had repaid their debt to society. • The Romans did not adhere to the idea of a Hell but this believe correlates with the dogma of Purgatory as adhered to by the Roman Catholic Church. • Persephone, the Queen of the Underworld Acted as a reprieve . • She would bribe for a specific soul to be sent back across the Styx to life again • Reincarnation?
Rituals: Parentalia • February 13-21: Romans remember their dead • On the 21 of February: Romans visited cemeteries, placed flowers, milk, and wine on graves • On the 22 of February: Family Reunions where offerings were made to household deities
Mithraism • Mithras was a Persian God from the Zoroastrian pantheon • Zoroastrianismis a Persian religion based on the balance of good and evil • Mithras was a helper and assistant to the power of good against the power of evil • Mithras was born from a rock • His main service in the fight against evil was the slay of a bull created by the evil lord. • He killed the bull in a cave, and from its blood sprang all life
Mithras in Rome • Mithraism came to Rome in the first century BCE and gained a following from: • soldiers, public servants and merchants. • It peaked in the third century before being supressed along with every other non-christian religion. • Little is known about Mithraism and it is considered a Mystery religionin which the meaning of its iconography and rituals was a secrete known only to initates
Mithraism - What we know • Member had to go through a seven step initiation • Ceremonies and rituals were held in caves similar to the one where Mithras was described killing the bull • Mithraism is known almost entirely from physical artifacts and dedicatory inscriptions. • It is also mentioned in works by: Pultarch, Porphyry and Origen • This religion shows that the Romans interacted and shared with other cultures!
Multiple Choice- Question 1 • All of the following were names of Jupiter’s attempt to make humans EXCEPT • The Bronze Age • The Golden Age • The Glorious Age • The Heroic Age
Multiple Choice- Question 2 • What remained in Pandora’s Box • Evil • Hope • Success • Failure
Multiple Choice- Question 3 • The Festival if Anna Pernna was held on • The Ides of December • The Ides of February • The Ides of March • The Ides of June
Multiple Choice- Question 4 • According to the Romans the soul begins its journey to what river after death? • Styx • Mars • Charon • Stones
Multiple Choice- Question 5 • In the Lupercalia ritual, what two animals are sacrificed? • Goat and Pig • Wolf and Dog • Bird and Cat • Goat and Dog
Works Cited • Gill, N.S. "Roman Burial Practices."Ancient/Classical History. The New York Times Company, 2011. Web. 18 Sep 2011. • Bassette, D. "Religion in Ancient Rome." N.p., 04/19/2000. Web. 18 Sep 2011. • O'Connell, Amanda. "Paganism; Past & Present." Ancient Roman Religion. Oracle, Somerset College, 1999. Web. 18 Sep. 2011. • Bytes, Bizarre. "A Halloween History."Bizarre Bytes. Bizarre Bytes, 18/10/2010. Web. 18 Sep 2011. • Stewart. Roman Mythology. New York: Peter Bedrick, 1969. Print. • Bingham, Jane. Classical Myth: a Treasury of Greek and Roman Legends, Art, and History. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2008. Print. • Hunt, Jenni. "Major Holidays of Rome October (Mensis October)." Major Holidays of Rome October. A Druid Fellowship, Inc. Web. 18 Sep. 2011.