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Jemmy Madison’s War The War of 1812
Focus Question: • Identify three reasons nations have used to declare war on another nation. Which reason is most valid?
Objectives After today’s lesson, you will: • Discuss the major causes and results of the War of 1812 • Examine text for cause and effect
Tensions mounted in the Atlantic World • Napoleonic Wars taxed the United States • Both Britain and France involved the nation • Both seized American shipping • Britain impressed American sailors • Jefferson called for an embargo • Felt Britain and France depended on U.S. food • Embargo failed
Failure of the Embargo • Results of the Embargo • Britain and France did not need American food • Devastated the U.S. economy • Trade collapsed • Many out of work • Helped foster U.S. manufacturing
Madison Administration • Embargo lifted in 1809 • Attempted “peaceable coercion” • Achieved little • Nation appeared to be floundering • Repeated “insults” of Great Britain
Indian Troubles • Tecumseh and the Prophet looked to form a Northwestern confederacy • Shawnee leadership • Composed of Great Lakes Natives • Defeated at Tippecanoe in 1811 • Sparked greater Indian War in the Great Lakes • Some indication of British guns among the Shawnee
Election of the War Hawks • Young generation of Congressional leaders • Saw Britain as insulting the U.S. • Looked to prove themselves • Soon took leadership in Congress
War of 1812 • Madison sought a declaration of war • Reaction of British policies • Saw a chance to unify the nation • Saw a chance to capture Canada • Britain lifted some trade restrictions two days before war was declared
Mixed results • U.S. naval victories on the Great Lakes • Invasion of Canada failed disastrously • U.S. unprepared for war • Militia did not perform as expected • Widespread discontent • Federalists opposed to the war • Battle of New Orleans
Treaty of Ghent • Peace signed on December 24, 1814 • Essentially an armistice • Status quo ante bellum • Senate approved the treaty in February 1815
Results of the War of 1812 • Sparked unity within the U.S. • Federalist opposition led to the party’s collapse • “Second American Revolution” • Led to a new relationship with Britain • Future boundary disputes put to mediation
Summary • Describe one change you would make in today’s lesson to improve it.