AGRICULTURE During the industrial revolution By: Ethan Parsons
CROP ROTATION • Lord Townshend discovered that if you rotate crops, from turnips one year, barley the second, grasses the third, and wheat the fourth. Rotating this way meant that the soil did not have to go fallow for a year. 4 times as much food could be produced. • Nicknamed “Turnip Townshend” because he discovered that by planting turnips and grasses, nitrogen would be returned to the soil, making farming much more efficient. • Also from planting turnips and grasses to make the soil more efficient, this also produced a cheap and effective fodder. This made it possible to feed more animal over the winter.
JETHRO TULL • Jethro Tull revolutionized farming. He Invented a machine that tilled the land, planted seeds in neat little rows, and covered the seeds with soil. This machine is called the seed drill. • He also discovered that if the soil was well cultivated, and enriched with manure, or fertilizer, crops grew much better.
NEW BREEDS • New breeds of cattle and sheep began to replace the old medieval breed of animals. • These animals began to produce more meat, or from sheep, more wool. • These new animals were also less likely to catch diseases. • The only problem is that the new breeds of animals were quite expensive, and in most cases, short supply. • Soon poor farmers could not afford these new breeds of animals or types of plants, but they could not compete with farmers who had enough money to invest in the new animals and plants.
BIGGER, MORE EFFICIENT FARMS • The commons ( the fields that could be used by anyone ) were starting to be turned into private property. • Many poor family who lost the commons, had to sell their farms to rich landowners, for very low prices. • Since enclosure was much more efficient, farming began to become a business, rather than farming to feed you and your family. • Many unemployed farmers and their family fled to the cities. These people then began to work in the factories, helping start the Industrial Revolution. • Since these new farms were much more efficient than the old farms, the new population in the cities could be fed.
THE RESULTS OF THIS CHANGE • Because of the changes in enclosure, new breeds of animals, cultivation, fertilization, more efficient seeding, and crop rotation, it made England the most advanced nation in Europe. It also allowed for the population to grow with the increase of available food • Also from the increase of people moving to cities, small towns like Manchester and Liverpool became major cities.