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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS CHILE PART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS B : Other Notable Earthquakes PowerPoint Presentation
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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS CHILE PART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS B : Other Notable Earthquakes. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN CHILE. FLOODS. GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES.

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS CHILE PART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS B : Other Notable Earthquakes


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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSCHILEPART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMISB: Other Notable Earthquakes

Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA 

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NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN CHILE

FLOODS

GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES

WINDSTORMS

EARTHQUAKES/TSUNAMIS

HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER NRESILIENT

VOLCANOES

WILDFIRES

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

natural phenomena that cause disasters
Natural Phenomena That Cause Disasters

Planet Earth’s heat flow causes movement of lithospheric plates, which causes subduction, which causes EARTHQUAKES

twenty five years later m7 5 earthquake strikes chile march 3 1985

TWENTY-FIVE YEARS LATERM7.5 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES CHILE MARCH 3, 1985

THE SECOND LARGEST EARTHQUAKE IN THE WORLD AFTER MEXICO IN 1985

impacts of the earthquake and tsunami
IMPACTS OF THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI
  • Damage from strong ground shaking occurred throughout central Chile.
  • At least 177 people were killed, and 2,575 injured.
  • A tsunami was also generated, and its waves traversed the Pacific, striking Valparaíso, Hawaii, Alaska, Tahiti, and Japan
fifty years later m8 8 earthquake strikes central chile 3 34 am on february 27 2010

FIFTY YEARS LATERM8.8 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES CENTRAL CHILE:3:34 am on February 27, 2010

Subduction Zone Quake 500 Times More Energy than the M7.0 March 12, 2010 Haiti Quake

800+ Deaths; 500+ Injured

Tsunami Waves Travel Across Pacific

Estimated Loss: $30 Billion

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The Chilean people had to cope with the demands associated with: 1) a mega-quake, 2) a vigorous aftershock sequence with large events, 3) local tsunami wave run up, 4) looting in the affluent sector, and 5) recovery after the loss of 15 percent of the GDP.

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Even though Chile has experienced many past earthquakes, had been implementing a modern building code since the 1960-85 events, and was well prepared to respond to all aspects of the emergency, it was still a disaster.

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Newly built apartment buildings were severely damaged or collapsed. Flames consumed buildings and a prison. Millions of people fled into streets darkened by the failure of power lines. Roads were damaged and bridges collapsed, causing cars and trucks to crash.

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An estimated 1 ½ million buildings were damaged, with about 1/3 of them collapsing, along with extensive and wide spread damage to the infrastructure.

the damage an estimated 30 billion was equivalent to 15 percent of chile s gross domestic product

The damage, an estimated $30 billion, was equivalent to 15 percent of Chile’s gross domestic product.

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Swiss Re, the world's second-largest reinsurer, said the impact on the financial/insurance sector would be between $4 and $7 billion.

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The aftershocks of the mega-earthquake provided an opportunity for measuring ground and building response for a range of excitation levels and site conditions.

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Damage from tsunami wave run up was worse locally along the coast of Chile than at distant locations along the Pacific rim.

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FORTUNATELY, THE TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, HAWAII, AMERICAN SAMOA, GUAM, JAPAN, AND OTHER LOCATIONS IN THE PATH OF THE TSUNAMI WAVES TRAVERSING THE PACIFIC WAS LESS THAN FORECAST.

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HAZARDS

EXPOSURE

VULNERABILITY

LOCATION

ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI RISK

RISK

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CAUSES OF DAMAGE

INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING

SOIL AMPLIFICATION

PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)

IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN

EARTHQUAKES

FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES

“DISASTER LABORATORIES”

LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

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CAUSES OF DAMAGE

HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES

INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP

VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP

INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS

TSUNAMIS

FLOODING

“DISASTER LABORATORIES”

INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION

PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI

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A DISASTER CAN HAPPENWHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE OR A TSUNAMI INTERACT WITH CHILE’S COMMUNITIES OR WITH THE COMMUNITIES OF ANOTHER PACIFIC RIM COUNTRY

a disaster is

A DISASTER is ---

--- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community torespond without external help  when three continuums: 1)  people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis,…) intersect at a point in space and time.

the alternative to an earthquake tsunami disaster is earthquake and tsunami disaster resilience

THE ALTERNATIVE TO AN EARTHQUAKE--TSUNAMI DISASTER ISEARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE

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WINDSTORM HAZARDS

  • INVENTORY
  • VULNERABILITY
  • LOCATION
  • PREPAREDNESS
  • PROTECTION
  • FORECASTS/SCENARIOS
  • EMERGENCY RESPONSE
  • RECOVERY and
  • RECONSTRUCTION

EQ-TS RISK

POLICY OPTIONS

ACCEPTABLE RISK

RISK

UNACCEPTABLE RISK

EQ-TS DISASTER RESILIENCE

DATA BASES AND INFORMATION

CHILE’S COMMUNITIES

HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS