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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS CHILE PART 3: EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS B : Other Notable Earthquakes. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN CHILE. FLOODS. GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES.
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Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES
HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER NRESILIENT
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
Planet Earth’s heat flow causes movement of lithospheric plates, which causes subduction, which causes EARTHQUAKES
THE SECOND LARGEST EARTHQUAKE IN THE WORLD AFTER MEXICO IN 1985
Subduction Zone Quake 500 Times More Energy than the M7.0 March 12, 2010 Haiti Quake
800+ Deaths; 500+ Injured
Tsunami Waves Travel Across Pacific
Estimated Loss: $30 Billion
The Chilean people had to cope with the demands associated with: 1) a mega-quake, 2) a vigorous aftershock sequence with large events, 3) local tsunami wave run up, 4) looting in the affluent sector, and 5) recovery after the loss of 15 percent of the GDP.
Even though Chile has experienced many past earthquakes, had been implementing a modern building code since the 1960-85 events, and was well prepared to respond to all aspects of the emergency, it was still a disaster.
Newly built apartment buildings were severely damaged or collapsed. Flames consumed buildings and a prison. Millions of people fled into streets darkened by the failure of power lines. Roads were damaged and bridges collapsed, causing cars and trucks to crash.
An estimated 1 ½ million buildings were damaged, with about 1/3 of them collapsing, along with extensive and wide spread damage to the infrastructure.
The aftershocks of the mega-earthquake provided an opportunity for measuring ground and building response for a range of excitation levels and site conditions.
FORTUNATELY, THE TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, HAWAII, AMERICAN SAMOA, GUAM, JAPAN, AND OTHER LOCATIONS IN THE PATH OF THE TSUNAMI WAVES TRAVERSING THE PACIFIC WAS LESS THAN FORECAST.
ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI RISK
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING
PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)
IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN
FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES
LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES
INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP
VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS
INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION
PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI
A DISASTER CAN HAPPENWHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE OR A TSUNAMI INTERACT WITH CHILE’S COMMUNITIES OR WITH THE COMMUNITIES OF ANOTHER PACIFIC RIM COUNTRY
--- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community torespond without external help when three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis,…) intersect at a point in space and time.
EQ-TS DISASTER RESILIENCE
DATA BASES AND INFORMATION
HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS