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Designing Products & Engineering. People,Problem-Solving, and Practicality. Industrial Engineering: the “People and Systems” Engineers. What is Industrial Engineering?.

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people problem solving and practicality
People,Problem-Solving, and Practicality

Industrial Engineering:

the “People and Systems” Engineers

what is industrial engineering
What is Industrial Engineering?

Industrial engineers design, install, and improve the complex systems which provide both goods and services vital to our society and economy. These systems integrate people, materials, and equipment, and thereby place unique demands for breadth of preparation upon industrial engineers. The traditional arenas for the practice of industrial engineering are the manufacturing facilities of industry. However, today fully one-third of practicing industrial engineers are employed in non-manufacturing enterprises such as hospitals, banks, and government.

industrial engineering
Industrial Engineering
  • Industrial engineers perform the following tasks in manufacturing and service industries.
    • Forecast the demand the product
    • Prepare a plan to produce the product
    • Analyze the cost and benefits of the product
    • Design the layout of the plant to produce the product
    • Select the manufacturing processes to make the product
    • Identify the people and their skills for production and supervision
    • Integrate people, materials, machines, and processes to work together
    • Schedule the machines and processes for production
    • Supervise the day-to-day operation of the facility
    • Design the workplace and procedures for workers to follow
    • Handle occupational and safety concerns
    • Model and analyze the performance of the system and find ways to improve it

Areas of Study Within Industrial Engineering2. Optimization/Operation Research


Distributor/Retailer Warehouse


Product Flow

Information Flow


Deterministic Operations Research – Optimization

Goal: to Choose the best (optimal) solution satisfying the limitations (constraints) of the system

  • Stochastic Operations Research

Goal: to evaluate the behavior of a stochastic (random) system


Areas of Application

  • Manufacturing and Production

Schedule jobs on the shop floor

Plan facilities layout

Formulate inventory policy

Improve reliability of products

  • Business

Determine advertising strategy

Determine mix of product to sell

Select an investment portfolio

  • Public Sector

Locate and equip emergency facilities

Design traffic systems

work cell floor plan




Work Cell

Tool Room

Work Cell Floor Plan
emergency room layout

E.R.Triage room

Patient A - broken leg

E.R. Admissions

Patient B - erratic pacemaker




E.R. beds



Emergency Room Layout





Sales &











Shipping &







Shop Floor



Production Planning and Control


Areas of Quality

  • Process Capability

Evaluates conformance to product specifications

  • Statistical Process Control

Looks at the process stability over time

  • Process Modeling

Forms a mathematical model of the process

How do the inputs of the system relate to the outputs?

  • Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility (GR&R)

Evaluates the measurement system

  • Diagnostics

Identifies the sources of any problems

sample industrial engineering courses
Human Factors Engineering

Work Measurements and Work Design

Facilities Planning and Design

Reliability Engineering

Experimental Design For Engineering

Production Planning and Control

Engineering Project Management

Integrated Manufacturing Systems

Expert Systems in Engineering

Industrial Robotics

Quality Control

Automated Inspection

Integrated Product and Process Design

Queuing Methods for Services and Manufacturing

Introductory Decision Analysis for Engineering

Simulation Modeling and Analysis

Engineering Information Systems

Contemporary Topics in Industrial Engineering

Sample Industrial Engineering Courses
career opportunities for industrial engineers
Career Opportunities for Industrial Engineers
  • Industrial engineers are the “problem solvers” in all organizations. Career opportunities for industrial engineering are limitless.
  • A sample list of career opportunities for industrial engineers include:

Manufacturing: regardless of the product manufactured, every manufacturing company needs IEs to plan the facility, perform economic analyses, plan and control production, manage people, handle safety issues, improve quality, evaluate performance, etc.

Health Services: hospitals and clinics need IEs to perform cost/benefit analyses, schedule work load, manage people, evaluate safety concerns, design and maintain facilities, etc.

Transportation: airlines, ground transportation, trucking, and warehousing companies need IEs to design the best schedules and routes, perform economic analyses, manage crews, etc.

Financial: banks and other savings and lending institutions need IEs to design financial plans,

perform economic analyses, etc.

Government: local and federal governments need IEs to design and enforce safety systems, environmental policies, plan for and operate in a number of organizations.

Consulting: IEs may work as consultants to help design and analyze a variety of systems including information systems, manufacturing and service systems.

what is engineering design
What is Engineering Design?
  • The systematic and creative application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems.

The basic purpose of any organization is to

provide products or services to their customers.

Thus, the design of these products and services is essential to the livelihood of a company.

But, what are the characteristics of an Effective Design?

effective design
Effective Design
  • Effective designs provide a competitive edge by:
  • Bringing new ideas to the market quickly
  • Doing a better job of satisfying customer needs
  • Making new products easier to manufacture, use, and repair than existing products
types of design and redesign
Types of Design and Redesign
  • Original Design (or Inventing)

Involves elaborating, original solutions for a given task. The result of original design is an invention.

  • Adaptive Design (or Synthesis)

Involves adapting a known system to a changed task or evolving a significant subsystem of a current product (such as antilock brakes).

  • Variant Design (or Modification)

Involves varying the parameters (size, geometry, material properties, control parameters, etc.) of certain aspects of a product to develop a new and more robust design.

product design
Product Design:
  • Specifies which materials are to be used
  • Determines dimensions and tolerances
  • Defines the appearance of the product
  • Sets standards for performance.
design has a tremendous impact on the quality of a final product or service
Design has a tremendous impact on the quality of a final product or service.

Quality in the design process involves:

  • Matching product or service characteristics with customer requirements
  • Ensuring that customer requirements are met in the simplest and least costly manner
  • Reducing the time required to design a new product or service, and
  • Minimizing the revisions necessary to make a design workable.
sources of idea generation
Sources of idea generation
  • Surveying suppliers, distributors,

and salespersons

  • Monitoring trade journals
  • Analyzing warranty claims, customer complaints, and other failures
  • Surveying potential customers
  • Bench marking:

Comparing a product or process against the

best-in-class product.

  • Reverse engineering:

Carefully dismantling a competitor’s product

in order to improve one’s own product.

involvement of different functional departments in the design process
Involvement of Different Functional Departments in the Design Process

Marketing Department takes the idea and:

  • Forms a product concept
  • Conducts a study on the feasibility of the proposed product or service
  • If the proposed product meets certain expectations, performance specifications are developed.
involvement of different functional departments in the design process29
Involvement of Different Functional Departments in the Design Process
  • Design Engineers take the performance specifications and:
      • Develop preliminary technical specifications, and later
      • Develop detailed design specifications.
  • Manufacturing Engineers take the detailed performance specifications and:
      • Develop a process plan that includes specific requirements for equipment, tooling, and fixtures.
  • Production Engineers take these manufacturing specifications and schedule production
the design process30














Design & Manufacturing



The Design Process



a decision making process



A Decision Making Process
    • Idea generation & pre-design planning
    • Customer Requirements
    • Functional Specification
    • Product Specifications
    • Concept Generation
    • Concept Selection
    • Engineering Design
    • Engineering Evaluation
    • Prototype and Testing
  • Manufacturing Design
final design is concerned with how the product will perform
Final design is concerned with how the product will perform.

It consists of three phases:

1. Functional design is concerned with how the product will perform.

2. Form design refers to the physical appearance of a product.

3. Production design is concerned with the ease and cost of manufacturing the product.

functional design how the product performs
Functional Design(How The Product Performs)
  • Reliability
    • probability product performs intended function for specified length of time
    • A measure for reliability is Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF).
  • Maintainability
    • ease and/or cost or maintaining/repairing product
    • A measure for maintainability is Mean Time To Repair (MTTR).
dfm guidelines
DFM Guidelines

1. Minimize the number of parts

2. Develop a modular design

3. Design parts for multi-use

4. Avoid separate fasteners

5. Eliminate adjustments

6. Design for top-down assembly

7. Design for minimum handling

8. Avoid tools

9. Minimize subassemblies

10. Use standard parts when possible

11. Simplify operations

12. Design for efficient and adequate testing

13. Use repeatable & understood processes

14. Analyze failures

15. Rigorously assess value

design simplification
Design Simplification

(a) The original design

(b) Revised design

(c) Final design

Assembly using

common fasteners

One-piece base &

elimination of fasteners

Design for push-and-snap


customers requirements
Customers’ Requirements
  • Normal Requirements are typically what we get by just asking customers what they want.
  • Expected Requirements are often so basic the customer may fail to mention them - until we fail to perform them. For example, if coffee is served hot, customers barely notice it. If it's cold or too hot, dissatisfaction occurs. Expected requirements must be fulfilled.
  • Exciting Requirements are difficult to discover. They are beyond the customer's expectations. For example, if full meals were served on a flight from Chicago to Indianapolis, that would be exciting. If not, customers would hardly complain.
making economic decisions
Making Economic Decisions
  • Engineering economy: the discipline concerned with the economic aspects of engineering. It involves the systematic evaluation of the costs and benefits of proposed technical projects.

Some Examples

    • Choosing the best design for a high-efficiency gas furnace
    • Recommending whether an overnight delivery service should be purchased or leased
rational decision making process
Rational Decision-Making Process
  • Recognize a decision problem
  • Define the goals or objectives
  • Collect all the relevant information
  • Identify a set of feasible decision alternatives
  • Select the decision criterion to use
  • Select the best alternative
example equipment process selection
Example: Equipment & Process Selection
  • How do you choose between Plastic Composite and Steel sheet stock for the auto body panel?
  • The choice of material will dictate the manufacturing process for the body panel as well as manufacturing costs.
engineering costs general cost terms
Engineering Costs General Cost Terms
  • Manufacturing Costs

Direct materials

Direct labor

Mfg. Overhead

  • Non-manufacturing Costs





Cost Components

  • Material Cost

Direct material cost – Bill of Material (BOM)

Non-formula material cost – expense of consumables used during processing

  • Conversion Cost

Capital depreciation

Direct labor

MBR – management budget review


Tools and Dies


cost classification for predicting cost behavior
Cost Classification for Predicting Cost Behavior
  • Cost Behaviors

Fixed costs

Variable costs

  • Average unit costs
fixed costs
Fixed Costs

Fixed costs per unit of production (F/Q)

Total fixed costs (F)

Production volume (Q)

Productionvolume (Q)

variable costs
Variable Costs
  • Def: Costs that vary depending on the level of production or sales
  • Cost behavior: Increase or decrease proportionally according to the level of volume
  • Examples: Costs of raw material, packaging material, direct labor, machine utilities are main variable costs.
variable costs51

Total variable costs (TV)

Variable Costs

Variable costs per unit of production (V)

Production volume (Q)

Production volume (Q)

break even analysis bea
Break-Even Analysis (BEA)
  • The total revenue depends on the production level.
  • The higher the production, the higher the total variable costs.
  • In BEA, it is assumed that price of product is fixed.

Total revenue (TR)


Price per unit (P)

Production (and sales ) volume (Q)

Production (and sales) volume (Q)

  • Therefore, the overall break-even analysis can be pictorially represented in the following graph


Total costs (F+VQ)



Total revenue (PQ)

Production (and sales) volume (Q)


Total Cost (TC) = Total Revenue (TR)



At the break-even point: F+VQ=PQ

QBEQ = F/ (P-V)

  • 500,000$ total yearly fixed costs.
  • 150$ / unit variable costs
  • 200$ / unit sale price
  • QBEQ=500000/(200-150) =10000 units
  • If our market research indicates that the present demand is > 10000, then this manufacturing system is economically feasible.
quality function deployment
  • Quality Function Deployment
    • Voice of the customer
    • House of quality

QFD: An approach that integrates the “voice of the customer” into the product and service development process.

quality function deployment58
Quality Function Deployment
  • Identify customer wants
  • Identify how the good/service will satisfy customer wants
  • Relate customer wants to product hows
  • Identify relationships between the firm’s hows
  • Develop importance ratings
  • Evaluate competing products
customer requirements customer comments
Customer Requirements CUSTOMER COMMENTS
  • Peels a variety of produce
  • Works both right and left handed
  • Creates minimal waste
  • Saves time
  • Durable
  • Easy to clean
  • Safe to use and store
  • Comfortable to use
  • Stays sharp or is sharpenable

“Carrots and potatoes are very different.”

“I cut myself with this one.”

“I just leave the skin on.”

“I’m left-handed. I use a knife.”

“This one is fast, but it takes a lot off.”

“How do you peel a squash?”

“Here’s a rusty one.”

“This looked OK in the store.”

Select a household product of your choice, your goal will be to describe how you think this design evolved. By looking at the product, can you tell:
    • How and why the device functions?  Can you describe how it works, what energy sources are used, and what purpose that function serves?
    • How was human engineering involved? How would the human/machine interface affect this design? What safety issues would have been involved?
    • Why the original designers selected the materials used?  What properties of the materials were most important in selecting them?
    • What features make this product unique?  Compared to similar items, are there features on your example that would identify this as a better product?
    • How was the production process affected by this design? Are there specific features that might have been added to make production more efficient?
As your analysis continues, choose one aspect of the design that intrigues you. Study the design used, and consider how you might improve on it.
    • Develop a list of alternatives, and compare them to the existing design.
    • Develop some criteria that may help you select one of your alternatives as most likely to succeed.
    • Finally, select one alternative, and describe how it improves on the existing design, what its limitations are, and why you think this is a better alternative than the existing design.