Designing Products & Engineering. People,Problem-Solving, and Practicality. Industrial Engineering: the “People and Systems” Engineers. What is Industrial Engineering?.
the “People and Systems” Engineers
Industrial engineers design, install, and improve the complex systems which provide both goods and services vital to our society and economy. These systems integrate people, materials, and equipment, and thereby place unique demands for breadth of preparation upon industrial engineers. The traditional arenas for the practice of industrial engineering are the manufacturing facilities of industry. However, today fully one-third of practicing industrial engineers are employed in non-manufacturing enterprises such as hospitals, banks, and government.
Areas of Study Within Industrial Engineering2. Optimization/Operation Research
Goal: to Choose the best (optimal) solution satisfying the limitations (constraints) of the system
Goal: to evaluate the behavior of a stochastic (random) system
Schedule jobs on the shop floor
Plan facilities layout
Formulate inventory policy
Improve reliability of products
Determine advertising strategy
Determine mix of product to sell
Select an investment portfolio
Locate and equip emergency facilities
Design traffic systems
Production Planning and Control
Evaluates conformance to product specifications
Looks at the process stability over time
Forms a mathematical model of the process
How do the inputs of the system relate to the outputs?
Evaluates the measurement system
Identifies the sources of any problems
Work Measurements and Work Design
Facilities Planning and Design
Experimental Design For Engineering
Production Planning and Control
Engineering Project Management
Integrated Manufacturing Systems
Expert Systems in Engineering
Integrated Product and Process Design
Queuing Methods for Services and Manufacturing
Introductory Decision Analysis for Engineering
Simulation Modeling and Analysis
Engineering Information Systems
Contemporary Topics in Industrial EngineeringSample Industrial Engineering Courses
Manufacturing: regardless of the product manufactured, every manufacturing company needs IEs to plan the facility, perform economic analyses, plan and control production, manage people, handle safety issues, improve quality, evaluate performance, etc.
Health Services: hospitals and clinics need IEs to perform cost/benefit analyses, schedule work load, manage people, evaluate safety concerns, design and maintain facilities, etc.
Transportation: airlines, ground transportation, trucking, and warehousing companies need IEs to design the best schedules and routes, perform economic analyses, manage crews, etc.
Financial: banks and other savings and lending institutions need IEs to design financial plans,
perform economic analyses, etc.
Government: local and federal governments need IEs to design and enforce safety systems, environmental policies, plan for and operate in a number of organizations.
Consulting: IEs may work as consultants to help design and analyze a variety of systems including information systems, manufacturing and service systems.
provide products or services to their customers.
Thus, the design of these products and services is essential to the livelihood of a company.
But, what are the characteristics of an Effective Design?
Involves elaborating, original solutions for a given task. The result of original design is an invention.
Involves adapting a known system to a changed task or evolving a significant subsystem of a current product (such as antilock brakes).
Involves varying the parameters (size, geometry, material properties, control parameters, etc.) of certain aspects of a product to develop a new and more robust design.
Quality in the design process involves:
Comparing a product or process against the
Carefully dismantling a competitor’s product
in order to improve one’s own product.
Marketing Department takes the idea and:
It consists of three phases:
1. Functional design is concerned with how the product will perform.
2. Form design refers to the physical appearance of a product.
3. Production design is concerned with the ease and cost of manufacturing the product.
1. Minimize the number of parts
2. Develop a modular design
3. Design parts for multi-use
4. Avoid separate fasteners
5. Eliminate adjustments
6. Design for top-down assembly
8. Avoid tools
9. Minimize subassemblies
10. Use standard parts when possible
11. Simplify operations
12. Design for efficient and adequate testing
13. Use repeatable & understood processes
14. Analyze failures
15. Rigorously assess value
(a) The original design
(b) Revised design
(c) Final design
One-piece base &
elimination of fasteners
Design for push-and-snap
Direct material cost – Bill of Material (BOM)
Non-formula material cost – expense of consumables used during processing
MBR – management budget review
Tools and Dies
Fixed costs per unit of production (F/Q)
Total fixed costs (F)
Production volume (Q)
Total costs (F+VQ)
Total revenue (PQ)
Production (and sales) volume (Q)
Total Cost (TC) = Total Revenue (TR)
At the break-even point: F+VQ=PQ
QBEQ = F/ (P-V)
QFD: An approach that integrates the “voice of the customer” into the product and service development process.
“Carrots and potatoes are very different.”
“I cut myself with this one.”
“I just leave the skin on.”
“I’m left-handed. I use a knife.”
“This one is fast, but it takes a lot off.”
“How do you peel a squash?”
“Here’s a rusty one.”
“This looked OK in the store.”