Designing Products & Engineering The Overall Goal Increase customer satisfaction = Increase business success QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT Getting from the voice of the customer to technical design specifications Quality Function Deployment Voice of the customer House of quality
Getting from the voice of the customer to technical design specifications
QFD: An approach that integrates the “voice of the customer” into the product and service development process.
1. No matter how well the design team thinks it understands the problem, it should employ the QFD method for all design areas. In the process the team will learn what it doesn’t know about the problem.
2. The customer’s requirements must be translated into measurable design targets. You can’t design a car door that is “easy to open” when you don’t know the meaning of the word “easy”.
3. The QFD method can be applied to the entire problem and/or any sub-problem.
4. It is important to worry about what needs to be designed and, only after this is fully understood, to worry about how the design will look and work.
Our cognitive capabilities generally lead us to try to assimilate the customer’s functional requirements (what is to be designed) in terms of form (how it will look).
These images then become our favored designs and we get locked into them. The QFD procedure helps us to overcome this cognitive limitation.
1. Identifying the customer(s)
2. Determining customer requirements
3. Prioritizing the requirements
4. Competition benchmarking
5. Translating the customer requirements into measurable engineering requirements
6. Setting engineering targets for design
Who is the customer?
In addition to the person buying the product, the customers of the design engineer would also include the manufacturing and assembly engineers and workers. (or anyone else downstream of the design process).
The goal is to develop a list of all the customer requirements (made up in the customer’s own words) that will affect the design. This should be accomplished with the whole design team, based on the results of customer surveys.
Kano Model - used to understand the importance of design characteristics to a customer
Some of these needs are so fundamental, they are often not expressed by the customer. However, they are crucial and must be identified.
The best that we can expect by meeting these is a consumer that is not unhappy.
These provide increased satisfaction as performance improves. They are generally expressed by the consumer.
These cause immediate happiness. Needs of this type are typically not verbalized.
Creation of some excitement features in a design will differentiate your product from the competition.
The first and third questions are paired and evaluate instructor humor. They are useful in identifying humor as an excitement or performance need.
The second and fourth questions are also paired evaluating useful information given by the instructor. These questions allow you to identify information as a basic or performance need.
A weighting factor is generated for each requirement. The weighting factor will give the designer an idea of how much effort, time, and money to invest in achieving each requirement.
Two questions should be addressed in developing a prioritization
(1) To whom is the requirement important?
(2) How is a measure of importance developed for this diverse group of requirements?
The goal here is to determine how the customer perceives the competition’s ability to meet each of the requirements. This forces awareness of what already exists and points out opportunities for improving upon that which already exists.
Each competing product is compared with customer requirements. Some comparisons are objective and others are subjective.
Below is a possible scale for rating the competition’s product based on customer requirements.
1 = the design does not meet the requirement at all
2 = the design meets the requirement slightly
3 = the design meets the requirement somewhat
4 = the design meets the requirement mostly
5 = the design meets the requirement completely
Step 5: Translating the Customer Requirements into Measurable Engineering Requirements
The goal here is to develop a set of engineering requirements (often called design specifications) that are measurable for use in evaluating the proposed designs.
1. Transform the customer requirements into engineering requirements.
2. Make sure that the engineering requirements are measurable.
The House of Quality is a popular collection of several deployment hierarchies and tables. It has the form of a table that connects dots between the “Voice of the Customer” and the “Voice of the Engineer.”
The House of Quality is used by multidisciplinary teams to translate a set of customer requirements, using market research and benchmarking data, into an appropriate number of prioritized engineering targets to be met by a new product design.
1. Customer requirements (HOW`s). A structured list of requirements derived from customer statements.
2. Technical requirements (WHAT`s). A structured set of relevant and measurable product characteristics.
3. Planning matrix. Illustrates customer perceptions observed in market surveys. Includes relative importance of customer requirements, and company and competitor performance in meeting these requirements.
4. Interrelationship matrix. Illustrates the QFD team's perceptions of interrelationships between technical and customer requirements. An appropriate scale is applied, which is illustrated by using symbols or figures. To fill this portion of the matrix involves discussions and to build consensus within the team, which can be time consuming. Concentrating on key relationships and minimizing the numbers of requirements are useful techniques to reduce the demands on resources.
5. Technical correlation (Roof) matrix. Used to identify where technical requirements support or impede each other in the product design. Can highlight innovation opportunities.
House Of Quality
Engineering Competitive Assessment
Before QFD After QFD
sequential development simultaneous development across functions
function involvement by phase all functions participate from start
management approval by phase team empowered to make decisions
tasks assigned by function tasks shared across functions
functionally led decisions consensus decisions about trade-offs
presentation meetings working meetings to develop results jointly
customer needs not integrated focus on customer needs carried throughout
Ultimately you choose the design
Not the customer!
You’ve been assigned temporarily to a QFD team. The goal of the team is to develop a new camera design. Build a House of Quality.
© 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.
What the customer desires (‘wall’)
Easy to use
Average customer importance rating
Easy to use