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Bio 9B: Friday, 3.19.10 Title: Introduction to Genetic Inheritance and Variation

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  1. Bio 9B: Friday, 3.19.10Title: Introduction to Genetic Inheritance and Variation • Homework: • Give me your Notebooks at the end of class (After the Do Now and the Genetics Overview)!!!! • Finish drawing your baby! • Do Now: • How can an error in meiosis result in abnormal chromosome numbers in people? Nondisjunction Videos • Today’s Objectives: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  2. Karyotyping Activity – Part II Review Nondisjunction Videos

  3. Mendelian Genetics &Genetic Inheritance Biology 9 Moretti and Dickson

  4. Genetics Overview • The study of gene inheritance and variation • Answers big questions like: • How are traits inherited? • Why do offspring look similar to their parents but not exactly like their parents? • How do we have so many different types of organisms and so much genetic variation? • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  5. Mendelian Genetics and Probability • New Vocabulary: • Dominant and Recessive • Genotypes and Phenotypes • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  6. Mendelian Genetics and Probability • New Vocabulary: • Dominant and Recessive • Dominant: • The allele that is always expressed as a trait if it is present (regardless of other alleles) • Recessive: • The allele that is only expressed as a trait if the dominant allele is not present Evidence: True-breeding yellow x True-breeding green (YY)(yy) All yellow offspring (Yy) • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  7. Mendelian Genetics and Probability • New Vocabulary: • Genotypes and Phenotypes • Genotypes: • The genetic make-up of an organism • The combination of alleles • Phenotypes: • The expressed physical characteristics • The “Trait” “Phenotypes are the sum of Genotypes + Environment” • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  8. “Makin’ Babies”: Mendelian Genetics & Probability • Use the “Genotype Data Table” to determine the Traits of your baby by flipping the coin a total of two times for each trait (once for each allele). • Heads = Dominant and X • Tails = Recessive and Y • For example: Face shape = R, so heads=R and tails = r • Write the combination of the alleles in the box next to the trait. This is the Genotype for each trait • Then, go to the Phenotype chart • Determine the Phenotype based on the Genotype from page 1 • For example: if you flipped two RR for face shape, the phenotype would be Round • After all of the Phenotypes are determined, draw your baby by using the traits from the Phenotype chart • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  9. Bio 9B: Monday, 3.22.10Title: Genetic Inheritance and Variation • Homework: • Complete the analysis questions for the Makin’ Babies Activity • Do Now: • Learning how to use the “CLICKERS” • Actual Do Now in a few slides… • Today’s Objectives: • Differentiate between genotypes and phenotypes • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  10. Learning how to use the “Clickers” • What are they? • Audience response tools that allow you to enter your response/ answer by “clicking” the handheld response card (sort of like Jeopardy). • Why are they cool? • Everyone can participate in class! • You can answer questions from class without waiting to be called upon! • In seconds, we can determine how many people really understand what we are doing and adjust accordingly to meet the needs of the class!

  11. Learning how to use the “Clickers” • How do they work? • Each of you will get a clicker assigned to you (based on your last name position in the alphabet). • Every day you come to class, you will take your Clicker from the Clicker rack and sit down. • As I post slides that have questions for you to answer, you will “click” your answer on the handheld Clicker. • Your response goes right to the computer where software records the responses, tabulates the numbers of responses, and creates graphs to show how the class responds.

  12. Your Clicker Number:Write it on the FRONT of your notebook

  13. Now… • Get your clicker • Once everyone has their clicker… • Hold down the Channel button for a few seconds • Press ZERO and then TWO • Press Channel again (This will set your clicker to the proper channel)

  14. DO NOW: Does this picture show GENOTYPES or PHENOTYPES? “Click” your answer… • Genotypes • Phenotypes 0 of 30 • Objectives for Class: • Differentiate between genotypes and phenotypes :30

  15. Vocabulary Review • Genotype: • genetic make-up/combination of alleles (Ex: AA, Aa, or aa) • Phenotype: • The traits that an organism has (Ex: purple flowers or white flowers) • Trait: • a specific characteristic that varies between individuals (Ex: flower color) • Objectives for Class: • Differentiate between genotypes and phenotypes

  16. Vocabulary Review • Fill in the blanks… What is the phenotype? What is the phenotype? What is the genotype? • Which allele is dominant? Recessive? How do you know? • Purple (A) = Dominant • White (a) = Recessive • Objectives for Class: • Differentiate between genotypes and phenotypes

  17. Mendelian Genetics and Probability • New Vocabulary: • Homozygous and Heterozygous • Homozygous: Two of the same allele for a particular trait are present • Ex: RR = Round Face • Ex: rr = Square Face • Heterozygous: Two different alleles for a particular trait are present • Ex: Rr = Round Face • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  18. “Makin’ Babies”: Review and Analysis (w/ the Clickers) • Now we will use the Clickers to collect the Class Results for question 4. • To do this, enter in your baby’s phenotype for each of the following traits: • Face Shape • Cleft Chin • Widow’s Peak • Earlobes • Gender • As we address each trait, write the percentages for each phenotype in the Class Results chart. • Use this data to complete analysis question #4. • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  19. Phenotype Class Results:What is the face shape of your baby? • Round (dominant) • Square (recessive) • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction 22 of 26

  20. Phenotype Class Results:Does your baby have a cleft chin? 26 • No, it’s absent (dominant) • Yes, it’s present (recessive) 22 • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  21. Phenotype Class Results:Does your baby have a widow’s peak? • Yes, it’s present (dominant) • No, it’s absent (recessive) 22 of 26 • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  22. Phenotype Class Results:What kind of earlobes does your baby have? • Unattached (dominant) • Attached (recessive) 22 of 26 • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction

  23. Phenotype Class Results:What is the gender of your baby? • Girl (XX) • Boy (XY) 26 22 of 26 • Objectives for Class: • Experiment with probability to see the diversity of offspring that can be made through sexual reproduction 0

  24. Complete the Analysis Questions for the “Makin’ Babies” Activity • Please complete the questions on a separate sheet of paper…

  25. 3.23.10: Get Your Clicker…

  26. Bio 9B: Tuesday, 3.23.10Title: Genetic Inheritance & Variation - Mendel’s Principle of Segregation • Homework: • Complete the Monohybrid Crosses Worksheet • Do Now: • Get a clicker and answer the question • Take out the Making Babies Analysis Questions • Today’s Objectives: • Use Mendel’s Principle of Segregation to explain: How can children show traits that their parents don’t have? • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses

  27. Do Now: Which of the following terms applies to traits, such as eye color, that are controlled by more than one gene? 30 • Codominant • Polygenic • Recessive • Dominant 0

  28. Vocabulary Review • Fertilization: • the joining of two gametes in sexual reproduction • Zygote: • a fertilized egg cell that will grow and develop into an offspring

  29. A human zygote, like most other human cells, contains 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes does the a zygote receive from the mother? 30 • 12 • 23 • 46 • 92 0

  30. In the diagram below, which process is fertilization? • Process A • Process B 0 of 30

  31. Some background on Mendel and what he did to advance genetics You Don’t need to write this down: • GregorMendel studied genetics by doing experiments with pea plants. • He started with true-breeding plants, which he knew were homozygous for their traits. • Objectives for Class: • Use Mendel’s Principle of Segregation to explain: How can children show traits that their parents don’t have? • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses

  32. Some background on Mendel and what he did to advance genetics You don’t need to write this down: • GregorMendel studied genetics by doing experiments with pea plants. • He started with true-breeding plants, which he knew were homozygous for their traits. • When he cross-bred these plants, he found that one phenotype was dominant over the other. • But when he cross-bred the offspring, the recessive phenotype reappeared! • How can we explain this?? • Objectives for Class: • Use Mendel’s Principle of Segregation to explain: How can children show traits that their parents don’t have? • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses

  33. Mendel’s Discoveries • Principle of Segregation • Principle of Independent Assortment • Objectives for Class: • Use Mendel’s Principle of Segregation to explain: How can children show traits that their parents don’t have? • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses

  34. Mendel’s Discoveries: Principle of Segregation • Alleles segregate (separate) during meiosis so each gamete gets one allele A A a Two choices for gametes: A or a a A A a a

  35. Principle of Segregation (continued…) • This explains why the recessivetrait reappears in the F2generation… • In ¼ of the offspring. Source of Gametes

  36. In guinea pigs, rough coat (R) is dominant over smooth coat (r). A heterozygous guinea pig is mated with another heterozygous pig.What percentage of the next generation will have smooth coat? 30 • 100% • 50% • 25% • 75% 0

  37. Bio 9B: Thursday, 3.23.10Title: Genetic Inheritance & Variation - Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment Double Block • Homework: • Complete the calculations for the Part B and C analysis. Complete conclusion questions 1 and 2. (note: different than assignment sheet). • Do Now: • Homework Review: We need 3 volunteers to put problems 2, 3, and 4 on the side board • Everyone else is “clicking” their answers to the questions on the board • Today’s Objectives: • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.

  38. Question 2 (d): What is the probability of purple flowers? 30 • 25% • 50% • 75% • 0% 3

  39. Question 3 (C): If Ben and Jaelene has a child, what is the probability s(he) will have attached earlobes? 30 • 25% • 50% • 75% • 0% 12

  40. Question 4 (b): A cross between a cow and a bull that both have red and white spots. What are the probabilities of a red calf? 30 • 25% • 50% • 75% • 0% 23

  41. Review: Principle of Segregation and Meiosis Diploid Cells AA Aa Aa Aa Aa A a A a aa Segregation Possible Haploid Gametes Fertilization Possible Diploid Zygotes

  42. “Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms • Part A: Developing Your Hypothesis • Use your knowledge of probability and inheritance to develop a hypothesis for the percentages of two different phenotypes found in the F2 generation of corn offspring (seeds). • Part B: Investigating an actual F2 • Test your hypothesis with an ear of corn. The kernels on these ears of corn are the F2 offspring from a cross that began with two parental varieties of corn with contrasting phenotypes (one yellow one purple). • Part C: Investigating Two Traits • For this section you will see what happens when you look at the inheritance of two separate traits? Mendel studied this by looking at seed color AND seed shape in pea plants – and that’s what you will do next, with an ear of corn. • Objectives for Class: • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.

  43. “Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms • Part A Procedure: Examine the pictures for corn kernel color and answer questions in your notebooks Parent (P1) Parent (P2) X First Generation (F1) X Second Generation (F2)

  44. “Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms • Part B Data Table: Create in Notebooks

  45. “Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms • Part A: Developing Your Hypothesis • Use your knowledge of probability and inheritance to develop a hypothesis for the percentages of two different phenotypes found in the F2 generation of corn offspring (seeds). • Part B: Investigating an actual F2 • Test your hypothesis with an ear of corn. The kernels on these ears of corn are the F2 offspring from a cross that began with two parental varieties of corn with contrasting phenotypes (one yellow one purple). • Part C: Investigating Two Traits • For this section you will see what happens when you look at the inheritance of two separate traits? Mendel studied this by looking at seed color AND seed shape in pea plants – and that’s what you will do next, with an ear of corn. • Objectives for Class: • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.

  46. Bio 9B: Friday, 3.26.10Title: Genetic Inheritance & Variation - Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment (Moretti Absent – Sub-Plan) • Homework: • Complete the Analysis and Conclusion Sections (should be able to do this in class). • Brainstorm the background information in your notebook (clearly label this!). Type the background information section based on your brainstorm (don’t forget to make connections between the points). • Do Now: • Get an ear of corn and complete the dihybrid analysis. • Today’s Objectives: • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.

  47. “Counting Corn”: Genetic Crosses in Organisms • Part A: Developing Your Hypothesis • Use your knowledge of probability and inheritance to develop a hypothesis for the percentages of two different phenotypes found in the F2 generation of corn offspring (seeds). • Part B: Investigating an actual F2 • Test your hypothesis with an ear of corn. The kernels on these ears of corn are the F2 offspring from a cross that began with two parental varieties of corn with contrasting phenotypes (one yellow one purple). • Part C: Investigating Two Traits • For this section you will see what happens when you look at the inheritance of two separate traits? Mendel studied this by looking at seed color AND seed shape in pea plants – and that’s what you will do next, with an ear of corn. • Objectives for Class: • Use Punnett Squares to solve monohybrid crosses • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.

  48. Bio 9B: Monday, 3.29.10Title: Genetic Inheritance & Variation - Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment • Homework: • Pass forward the monohybrid cross activity. • Type the Background Info, procedure, purpose, and Part A Hypothesis. Note: Brainstorm your background information section in your notebooks! • Do Now: • Where are you with the Corn Lab? “Share-out” survey on the side board. • Today’s Objectives: • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.

  49. Answering Corn Lab Questions • Why Part A? • How does Part A connect to Part B? • How does having 2 traits change things?

  50. Bio 9B: Tuesday, 3.30.10Title: Genetic Inheritance & Variation - Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment • Homework: • Finish the Dihybrid Crosses Worksheet if you didn’t finish it in class. • Revise or complete Steps 5-9 of Part C on the Corn Lab if you haven’t already, or if you can do a better job after today’s lesson on dihybrid crosses. Refer to the Dihybrid Crosses Worksheet for help if you need it. • Do Now: • On the next slide… • Today’s Objectives: • Use Punnett Squares to solve dihybrid crosses • Use Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment to explain how genetic variation is created in individuals.