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SPINAL CORD ANATOMY. General Characteristics. Approx. ½ meter in length. Varies from 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter. Enlargements: Cervical: C3 – T1. Lumbar region: L1 – S2. General Characteristics. Conus medullaris: Ends at about the level of L2. Cauda equina. Filum terminale:

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general characteristics
General Characteristics
  • Approx. ½ meter in length.
  • Varies from 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter.
  • Enlargements:

Cervical:

C3 – T1.

Lumbar region:

L1 – S2.

general characteristics1
General Characteristics
  • Conus medullaris:

Ends at about the level of L2.

  • Cauda equina.
  • Filum terminale:

Thin filament of meningeal tissue extending from conus medullaris to the coccyx.

spinal nerves
Spinal Nerves
  • 08 cervical.
  • 12 thoracic.
  • 05 lumbar.
  • 05 sacral.
  • 01 coccygeal.
plexuses
Plexuses
  • Cervical:

C1 – C4.

  • Brachial:

C5 – T1.

  • Lumbosacral:

L1 – S4.

cross sectional anatomy
Cross-Sectional Anatomy
  • Central canal.
  • Gray matter:

“H”-shaped.

  • White matter.
gray matter
Gray Matter
  • Horns are equivalent to CNS nuclei.
  • Posterior (dorsal) horns:

Receive incoming sensory fibers.

  • Anterior (ventral) horns:

Site of cell bodies of alpha motor neurons to skeletal muscle fibers.

  • Lateral horns:

Located only in thoracic and upper lumbar region:

Site of cell bodies of ANS motor neurons.

white matter
White Matter
  • Columns are referred to as funiculi.
  • Columns consist of myelinated tracts.
  • Posterior (dorsal) columns.
  • Anterior (ventral) columns.
  • Lateral columns.
commissures
Commissures
  • White:

Anterior and posterior.

  • Gray:

Anterior and posterior.

spinal nerves1
Spinal Nerves
  • Dorsal rootlets.
  • Dorsal root:

Carries afferent fibers.

With dorsal root ganglion:

Location of cell bodies of afferent neurons.

  • Ventral root:

Carries efferent fibers.

No associated ganglion.

spinal nerves2
Spinal Nerves
  • Spinal nerve carries a mixture of fibers:

Both afferent and efferent.

Both visceral and somatic.

Proprioceptive.

primary rami
Primary Rami
  • Dorsal (posterior):

To expaxial musculature (deep back muscles) and skin on either side of dorsum of back.

  • Ventral (anterior):

To hypaxial musculature (rest of skeletal musculature including muscles of limbs) and rest of skin.

autonomic rami
Autonomic Rami
  • White ramus communicans:

Carries pre-ganglionic sympathetic fibers from lateral horns of central gray of spinal cord (thoracolumbar regions).

  • Gray ramus communicans:

Carries post-ganglionic sympathetic fibers from paravertebral ganglia back to spinal nerve.

meniniges
Meniniges
  • Epidural space.
  • Dura mater:

Tough outer layer.

  • Subdural space.
  • Arachnoid.
meniniges1
Meniniges
  • Subarachnoid space:

Contains CSF.

  • Pia mater:

Delicate innermost layer.

  • Denticulate ligaments.