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  1. Welcome to... Companion PowerPoint Presentation for the Introduction to Housing textbook

  2. Vernacular (Folk) Houses Built for shelter with little concern for popular styles Traditional—based on a local model & uses local materials & construction techniques

  3. Modern Vernacular—more typical of vernacular architecture today uses readily available materials, not necessarily of local origins uses traditional construction techniques is based on a variety of models

  4. Early colonization: Adapted European concepts Centered around a large fireplace (heat, light & food preparation) Stone, but wood better choice in America Simple, small & built by family members

  5. Hall and Parlor Cottage • Fireplace • Steep roof • Gabled roof with the sloped sides parallel to the front door (side as opposed to front gable) • Hall was the public & work area while the parlor was used for sleeping

  6. Cape Cod • Most popular in the 18th century; major revival in mid-20th century • Story and a half with side gable & centered front door • Dormers facing the front & symmetrically placed windows

  7. Georgian Style • Hired builders—more attention to aesthetics • Divided interior spaces • Primary style until early 19th century • Inspired by classic Greek & Roman design • Windows were large with numerous panes • Entry door capped by decorative crown

  8. Greek Revival Style • In the early 19th century the ideal home was a single family detached homestead surrounded by a garden • Importance of the home in the new democracy—search for identity • Attracted to the birthplace of democracy—Greece • Popular up to Civil War • Lower slope & front gable • Porches with columns; half-round windows

  9. Gothic Revival Style • Competition between styles in the 1840s due to plan books • More picturesque—muted colors instead of white • Irregular shape • More decorative • Steeply pitched roof with decorative barge boards on the gable ends

  10. Mid-19th century innovations • Commercial saw mills—stud frame construction (2” x 4”) & machine made nails—could have more angles: light frame construction • Cast iron stove that could be located out of view; less impact on design • Central heating • Railroads providing shipment of lumber & millwork (architectural trim & decorative elements)

  11. Victorian Era Home Styles • Modern suburban homes • House should have an organic form & be set in a suburban setting with trees & gardens (middle class) • Promoted by plan books & land developers—time of self-improvement & progress • Complex exterior forms and roof lines to add aesthetic interest

  12. Multiple gables, towers & bay windows • Wide porches • Variety of siding types • Elaborately detailed millwork • Interiors were also heavily ornamented with elaborate woodwork & multiple special purpose spaces • Hand work

  13. Craftsman or Bungalow Style • Early 20th century—reaction to excess • Home economics & smaller families • Smaller & simpler homes—one or one and a half story set on high basement • Low pitched roof with wide eaves • Porches under main roof supported by columns • Natural materials & colors

  14. Prairie Style • Credited to Frank Lloyd Wright • Usually 2 stories • Low pitched hipped roof wide overhangs • Horizontal focus • Many variations

  15. Tudor Style • Eclectic styles of the 1920s • English-trained architects • Development of brick veneer & stucco construction techniques • Variety of steeply pitched roofs • Tall windows • Prominent chimney

  16. Post WW 2 • Pent up housing demand • Development of large subdivisions • Smaller homes on larger lots—allowed long side of house to face street with space for a car along side the house

  17. Ranch Style • Prevalent style today, with many variations • Inspired by western ranch homes • Started as one level & attached garage • Set lower to the ground with little if any exposed basement • Sprawling in form • Side facing gables with low slopes & wide eaves

  18. Today • No single style has replaced the ranch • Many variations— split level, raised ranch & two story ranch • Older styles also selectively incorporated into housing

  19. Focus now: Construction & detail Alternate building techniques Green materials Energy efficiency Thread—importance of housing to families & American society over time