Third Cinema: Why Third?. Geopolitical : Cinema representing the “Third World”: During the Cold War, nations were divided into three camps: T he “First” World: The U.S. and those countries aligned with the U.S. and with capitalism
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Third Cinema: Why Third? • Geopolitical: Cinema representing the “Third World”: • During the Cold War, nations were divided into three camps: • The “First” World: The U.S. and those countries aligned with the U.S. and with capitalism • The “Second” World: Those countries aligned with the Soviet Union and with communism • The “Third” World: Formerly colonized nations (particularly in Latin America, Asia, and Africa) that weren’t aligned with either • Aesthetic: A “Third” Style of Cinema • First Cinema: Commercial Cinema • Cinema designed to distract, entertain, and make $$$ • First Cinema Capital: Hollywood • i.e., Singin in the Rain • Second Cinema: “Art” Cinema • Cinema designed as a vehicle for personal expression • Second Cinema Capital: France & Italy • i.e., Fellini’s 8½
Qualities of Third Cinema • Thematic: • Documents anti-colonial struggle • Depicts poverty, everyday life • Conflict between traditional ways of life and modernity • Complex relationship between colonizer and colonized • Uncertainty about post-colonial future • Political: • Resists colonial and neo-colonial power • Sees cinema as a means of fighting against oppression • Critiques social and economic inequalities • Aims to inspire the spectator to fight for change • Critiques both internal and external forces of oppression
Aesthetics of Third Cinema • Influence of Soviet Montage • Desire to provoke political thought: • A + B = Z • Influence of Neorealism/New Wave • Handheld cameras, Location Shooting, Natural Light, Long Takes, Nonprofessional Actors, Direct Sound • Ambiguous spatial and temporal leaps • Underplayed Dramatic Moments and Anti-climaxes . . . No three-act structure • Juxtaposition of Different Registers: • Myth blends with History • Dreams blend with Documentary Reality (often incorporating news footage) • Consumer Culture blends with Folklore
Fernando Solanas and Octavio Getino: “Towards a Third Cinema” • The man of the third cinema . . . above all counters the film industry of a cinema of characters with one of themes, that of individuals with that of masses, that of the author with that of the operative group, one of neocolonial misinformation with one of information, one of escape with one that recaptures the truth, that of passivity with that of aggressions. • To an institutionalized cinema, it counterposes a guerrilla cinema; to movies as shows, it opposes a film act or action; to a cinema of destruction, one that is both destructive and constructive; to a cinema made for the old kind of human being, for them, it opposes a cinema fit for a new kind of human being, for what each one of us has the possibility of becoming.
Key Examples of Third Cinema • From Latin America: • Black God, White Devil (1964); Glauber Rocha (Brazil) • The Hour of the Furnaces (1968); Solanas and Getino(Argentina) • Memories of Underdevelopment (1968); Tomas Gutierrez Alea (Cuba) • From Africa: • Black Girl (1965); OusmaneSembene (Senegal) • The Battle of Algiers (1966); GilloPontecorvo(Algeria) • Soleil O (1967); Med Hondo (Mauritania) • ToukiBouki(1973); DjibrilMambety (Senegal) • From Asia: • Perfumed Nightmare (1977); KidlatTahimik (Philippines) • In Search of Famine (1981); MrinalSen (India)
Context: Perfumed Nightmare • History of the Philippines: • Pre-Hispanic Era: Trade w/ China, Arab World (Islam) • Spanish Colonization (1500s to 1898) • San Juan del Monte Bridge Incident (1898) and Philippine-American War • American Control (1898 to 1946) • Post-Colonial Independence (1946 to Present) • Marcos Dictatorship (1965 – 1986) • Bonus: Werner von Braun: • A Nazi who helped build the U.S. space program
Questions to Consider • Quiz Questions: • 1. What is this film about – what is its story? • 2. What makes this film an example of “Third Cinema”? • 3. Describe one scene in which the editing seemed significant to you. Describe the editing, and explain how it influenced your interpretation of the scene. • 4. Describe your personal response to the film, and give reasons to explain why you responded that way.