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POST OP ASSESSMENT INCLUDING POST OP ANALGESIA. Ernest Lekgabe HMO Royal Melbourne Hospital. O bjectives. Immediately post op patients must be seen as unstable and must always be assessed systematically

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post op assessment including post op analgesia
POST OP ASSESSMENTINCLUDING POST OP ANALGESIA

Ernest Lekgabe

HMO

Royal Melbourne Hospital

o bjectives
Objectives
  • Immediately post op patients must be seen as unstable and must always be assessed systematically
  • Recognise the critically ill who must undergo simultaneous examination and resuscitation when first seen
slide3

Immediate Management

ABCDE

Full patient assessment

Chart review

History and examination

Available results

Decide and plan

Stable patient

Unstable/unsure

Daily management plan

Diagnosis required

Definitive Care

Medical

surgical

Radiological

slide4

Immediate Management

ABCDE

Full patient assessment

Chart review

History and examination

Available results

Decide and plan

Stable patient

Unstable/unsure

Daily management plan

Diagnosis required

Definitive Care

Medical

surgical

Radiological

slide5

Immediate management

Airway

  • Look, Listen and feel
  • Look for presence of central cyanosis, use of accessory muscles of respiration, tracheal tug, ACS, foreign bodies
  • Listen for abnormal sounds e.g. grunting, snoring, gurgling, stridor
  • Feel for airflow on inspiration and expiration

Breathing

  • Look, Listen and feel
  • Look for central cyanosis, signs of respiratory distress
  • Feel for position of trachea, equality of chest expansion, percussion
  • Auscultate for abnormal breadth sounds, heart sounds and rhythm

Circulation

  • Circulatory dysfunction in a surgical pt is due to hypovoleamia until proved otherwise, therefore haemorrhage must excluded.
  • Look for reduced perfusion (pallor, coolness, collapsed or underfilled veins – BP may be normal in a shocked pt)
  • Feel for pulses – assess for rate, quality, regularity and equality

Dysfunction of the CNS

  • Assess pupils and use the AVPU system or GCS
  • Remember ACS may be due to others causes other than primary brain injury e.g. hypoxia and/or hypercapnia, decreased CPP due to shock. Exclude Hyploglycaemia.

Exposure

  • Allows for better assessment and access to patient for therapeutic manoeuvres but beware of pt getting cold and maintain dignity of the patient
grades of hypovolaemic shock
Grades of hypovolaemic shock
  • Grade 1 (15% BV, 750ml)
    • Mildtachycardia
  • Grade 2 (15-30% BV, 750-1500ml)
    • Mod tachycardia, pulse pressure, cap return
  • Grade 3 (30-40% BV, 1500-2000ml)
    • BP, HR, U/O
  • Grade 4 (40-50% BV, 2000-2500ml)
    • Above plus profound hypotension
question
Question
  • You visit Mr AB on the ward after his operation. You find that he is slightly drowsy, tachycardic and is cool peripherally.
  • What is your immediate assessment and management.
slide8

Immediate Management

ABCDE

Full patient assessment

Chart review

History and examination

Available results

Decide and plan

Stable patient

Unstable/unsure

Daily management plan

Diagnosis required

Definitive Care

Medical

surgical

Radiological

full patient assessment
Full patient assessment

Inspection of charts

  • Respiratory (RR, FiO2, SpO2), Circulation (HR, BP, UO, CVP, fluid balance), Surgical (temperature, drainage)
  • Check the drug chart to see what drugs have been given and which of the pt’s usual drugs might have been forgotten.

History and examination

  • Comorbidities
  • Full physical examination

Review of Results

  • Biochemistry (U&Es, ABGs, BSLs)
  • Haematology (FBE, clotting)
  • Microbiology
  • Radiology
slide10

Immediate Management

ABCDE

Full patient assessment

Chart review

History and examination

Available results

Decide and plan

Stable patient

Unstable/unsure

Daily management plan

Diagnosis required

Definitive Care

Medical

surgical

Radiological

decide and plan
Decide and plan
  • Decide wether patient is stable or unstable
  • If not sure manage as unstable
slide12

Immediate Management

ABCDE

Full patient assessment

Chart review

History and examination

Available results

Decide and plan

Stable patient

Unstable/unsure

Daily management plan

Diagnosis required

Definitive Care

Medical

surgical

Radiological

stable patient daily plan
Stable patient – Daily plan

Stable patients have normal signs and are progressing as expected. Most patients seen on the ward round are stable

Daily plan

  • Fluid balance
  • Drugs and Analgesia – antibiotics, DVT prophylaxis
  • Nutrition – route, how much
  • Removal of drains/tubes
  • Investigations (bloods, X-rays, referrals)
  • Physiotherapy
slide14

Immediate Management

ABCDE

Full patient assessment

Chart review

History and examination

Available results

Decide and plan

Stable patient

Unstable/unsure

Daily management plan

Diagnosis required

Definitive Care

Medical

surgical

Radiological

unstable patient diagnosis required
Unstable patient - Diagnosis required
  • Resuscitation
  • Investigations (bloods, CXR, ECG, cultures)
  • Consider if patient needs urgent surgery
  • Consider urgent specialist referrals, MET call
  • Consider transferring to HDU or ICU
post op analgesia
Post Op Analgesia
  • Analgesia relieves suffering
  • Inadequately controlled pain increases sympathetic outflow, leading to an increase HR, vasoconstriction and increased O2 demand, particularly in the myocardium and may contribute to MI.
  • Pain (from e.g. abdominal and thoracic procedures) may impair Respiratory function leading to atelectasis/Pneumonia
  • Good analgesia allows for rehabilitation
a ssessment of pain
Assessment of pain

Airway

  • Loss of airway from over sedation esp. in the elderly, patients with OSA, post cranial surgery.

Breathing

  • Assess depth of breathing, RR and ability to cough
  • Inadequate analgesia can lead to poor respiratory function and a poor cough effort.
  • This is a more common scenario than respiratory depression from opioid overdosage

Circulation

  • Inadequate analgesia can cause persistent tachycardia or hypertension, this in turn contribute to MI esp. in a pt who is already hypoxaemic
  • Epidural analgesia may lead to hypotension (sympathetic blockade - vasodilatation)

Disability

  • Opioid toxicity
pain scoring systems
Pain scoring systems
  • Verbal rating scale

Is your pain 0 – absent, 1- mild, 2 – discomforting, 3- distressing, 4 – excruciating

  • Numerical rating scale

On a scale from 1 – 10 how do you rate your pain

  • Visual analogue scale

No pain Worst imaginable

  • Functional assessment

Can you sit up? Can you cough?

techniques available for mx of acute pain
Techniques available for Mx of Acute pain

Epidural analgesia

  • Analgesic ladder - Single agent to epidural

Paracetamol

  • Should be given regularly, oral, rectal or IV

NSAIDs

  • Used as adjuncts, Increase efficacy and reduce opioid use
  • Can affect haemostasis and renal function, gastric ulceration

Opioids

  • Gold standard in severe pain
  • Codeine (weak analgesis, contipating),
  • Tramadol (opoid-like, less respiratory depression effect, less tendency

to produce dependence but marked emetic effect)

  • Oxycodone, oral, S/C or IV Morphine (bolus or infusion)
  • Side effects – Respiratory depression (reduce sensitivity of the

respiratory centres in the brain stem), Sedation (may cause loss of airway),

Nausea and vomiting (direct stimulation of CTZ in the medulla and by

reduced gastric emptying)

PCA

Multimodal therapy

Single-agent analgesia

techniques available for mx of acute pain20
Techniques available for Mx of Acute pain

PCA

  • self administered boluses of morphine with “patient lockout time”.

Epidural

  • Most effective way of producing profound analgesia, blocks afferent pain pathways.
  • Lumbar or thoracic approach
  • Usually a combination of drugs e.g. a local anaesthetic like bupivacaine and an opioid like fentanyl.
  • Aim is to get good pain relief with minimal sympathetic effects and no motor block.