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CHAPTER 4 TCP/IP Concepts & Router Operations. TCP/IP Protocol stacks & Layer functions IP Address classes, sub net mask, VLSM, and subnet calculations Static Route. Chapter Objective. On completion of this chapter, you will be able to perform the following tasks:

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Chapter 4 tcp ip concepts router operations
CHAPTER 4TCP/IP Concepts & Router Operations

TCP/IP Protocol stacks & Layer functions

IP Address classes, sub net mask, VLSM, and subnet calculations

Static Route

640-802 CCNA


Chapter objective
Chapter Objective

640-802 CCNA

  • On completion of this chapter, you will be able to perform the following tasks:

    • Identify the IP protocol stack, its protocol layer functions, and commonly used IP protocols

    • Identify IP address classes, IP addresses, IP subnet masks, IP network numbers, subnet numbers, and possible host numbers.

    • Understand static route.


Introduction to tcp ip
Introduction to TCP/IP

Host

Host

Internet

TCP/IP

Early protocol suite

Universal

640-802 CCNA


Internet control message protocol
Internet Control Message Protocol

Application

Destination Unreachable

Echo (Ping)

Other

Transport

1

ICMP

Internet

Data Link

Physical

640-802 CCNA


Address resolution protocol arp
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

I need the Ethernet address of 176.16.3.2.

I heard that broadcast. The message is for me. Here is my Ethernet address.

172.16.3.1

172.16.3.2

IP: 172.16.3.2 = ???

IP: 172.16.3.2

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111

Map IP MAC

Local ARP

640-802 CCNA


Reverse arp rarp
Reverse ARP (RARP)

What is my IP address?

I heard that broadcast. Your IP address is 172.16.3.25.

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111 IP = ???

Ethernet: 0800.0020.1111

IP: 172.16.3.25

Map MAC IP

640-802 CCNA


Introduction to tcp ip addresses
Introduction to TCP/IP Addresses

172.18.0.1

172.16.0.1

172.18.0.2

172.16.0.2

HDR

SA

DA

DATA

10.13.0.0

192.168.1.0

192.168.1.1

10.13.0.1

172.17.0.1

172.17.0.2

  • Unique addressing allows communication between end stations

  • Path choice is based on destination address

    Location is represented by an address

640-802 CCNA


Ip addressing
IP Addressing

32 bits

DottedDecimal

Network

Host

255

255

255

255

Maximum

1

8

9

16

24

25

32

17

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111111

Binary

1286432168421

1286432168421

1286432168421

1286432168421

ExampleDecimal

172

16

122

204

10101100

00010000

01111010

11001100

ExampleBinary

640-802 CCNA


Ip address classes 1

Network

Host

Host

Host

Network

Network

Host

Host

Network

Network

Network

Host

IP Address Classes (1)

8 bits

8 bits

8 bits

8 bits

Class A:

Class B:

Class C:

Class D: Multicast

Class E: Research

640-802 CCNA


Ip address classes 2
IP Address Classes (2)

1

8

9

16

17

24

25

32

Bits:

0NNNNNNN

Host

Host

Host

Class A:

Range (1-126)

1

8

9

16

17

24

25

32

Bits:

10NNNNNN

Network

Host

Host

Class B:

Range (128-191)

1

8

9

16

17

24

25

32

Bits:

110NNNNN

Network

Network

Host

Class C:

Range (192-223)

1

8

9

16

17

24

25

32

Bits:

1110MMMM

Multicast Group

Multicast Group

Multicast Group

Class D:

Range (224-239)

640-802 CCNA


Host addresses
Host Addresses

172.16.2.2

10.1.1.1

10.6.24.2

E1

E0

172.16.3.10

10.250.8.11

172.16.2.1

172.16.12.12

10.180.30.118

Routing Table

Network

Interface

172.16.0.0

10.0.0.0

E0

E1

172.16

.

12

.

12

Network

Host

640-802 CCNA


Determining available host addresses
Determining Available Host Addresses

Network

Host

17216 0 0

N

10101100

00010000

00000000

00000000

1

16151413121110 9

87654321

00000000

00000001

2

00000000

00000011

3

...

...

...

11111111

11111101

65534

11111111

11111110

65535

11111111

11111111

65536

-

2

2N-2=216-2 = 65534

65534

640-802 CCNA


Ip address classes exercise
IP Address Classes Exercise

Address

Class

Network

Host

10.2.1.1

A

10.0.0.0

0.2.1.1

128.63.2.100

B

128.63.0.0

0.0.2.100

201.222.5.0

C

0.0.0.64

201.222.5.64

C

192.6.141.0

0.0.0.2

192.6.141.2

B

130.113.0.0

0.0.64.16

130.113.64.16

256.241.201.10

Nonexistent

640-802 CCNA


Addressing without subnets
Addressing without Subnets

172.16.0.1

172.16.0.2

172.16.255.253

172.16.255.254

172.16.0.3

…...

172.16.0.0

Network 172.16.0.0

640-802 CCNA


Addressing with subnets
Addressing with Subnets

172.16.3.0

172.16.4.0

172.16.1.0

172.16.2.0

Network 172.16.0.0

640-802 CCNA


Subnet addressing 1
Subnet Addressing (1)

172.16.3.5

172.16.2.200

172.16.3.1

E1

E0

172.16.3.100

172.16.2.1

172.16.2.2

172.16.3.150

172.16.2.160

New Routing Table

Network

Interface

172.16

.

2

.

160

172.16.0.0

172.16.0.0

E0

E1

Host

Network

640-802 CCNA


Subnet addressing 2
Subnet Addressing (2)

172.16.2.200

172.16.3.5

172.16.3.1

E1

E0

172.16.2.2

172.16.3.100

172.16.2.1

172.16.2.160

New Routing Table

Network

Interface

172.16

.

2

.

160

172.16.2.0

172.16.3.0

E0

E1

Network

Subnet

Host

640-802 CCNA


Subnet mask
Subnet mask

Network

Host

172

16

0

0

IP Address

Network

Network

Host

Host

Default subnet mask

8-bit Subnet Mask

255

1111 1111

255

1111 1111

255

1111 1111

255

1111 1111

0

0000 0000

255

1111 1111

0

0000 0000

0

0000 0000

Also written as “/16” where 16 represents the number of 1s in the mask.

Also written as “/24” where 24 represents the number of 1s in the mask.

640-802 CCNA


Decimal equivalents of bit patterns
Decimal Equivalents of Bit Patterns

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 128

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 = 192

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 = 224

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 = 240

1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 = 248

1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 = 252

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 = 254

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 255

640-802 CCNA


Subnet mask without subnets
Subnet Mask without Subnets

Network

Host

172.16.2.160

1010 1100

0001 0000

0000 0010

1010 0000

1111 1111

1111 1111

0000 0000

0000 0000

255.255.0.0

0000 0000

0000 0000

1010 1100

0001 0000

NetworkNumber

172

16

0

0

Subnets not in use—the default

640-802 CCNA


Subnet mask with subnets 1
Subnet Mask with Subnets (1)

Subnet

Network

Host

172.16.2.160

1010 1100

0001 0000

0000 0010

1010 0000

1111 1111

1111 1111

0000 0000

1111 1111

255.255.255.0

1010 1100

0001 0000

0000 0010

0000 0000

128

192

224

240

248

252

254

255

Network Number

172

16

2

0

Network number extended by eight bits

640-802 CCNA


Subnet mask with subnets 2
Subnet Mask with Subnets (2)

Subnet

Network

Host

172.16.2.160

1010 1100

0001 0000

0000 0010

1010 0000

1111 1111

1111 1111

1100 0000

1111 1111

255.255.255.192

1010 1100

0001 0000

0000 0010

1000 0000

128

192

224

240

248

252

254

255

128

192

224

240

248

252

254

255

Network Number

172

16

2

128

Network number extended by ten bits

640-802 CCNA


Subnet mask exercise
Subnet Mask Exercise

Address

Subnet Mask

Class

Subnet

255.255.255.0

B

172.16.2.0

172.16.2.10

10.6.24.20

255.255.240.0

A

10.6.16.0

10.30.36.12

255.255.255.0

A

10.30.36.0

640-802 CCNA


Broadcast addresses
Broadcast Addresses

172.16.3.0

172.16.4.0

172.16.1.0

172.16.2.0

172.16.3.255

(Directed broadcast)

X

255.255.255.255

(Local network broadcast)

172.16.255.255

(All subnets broadcast)

640-802 CCNA


Addressing summary example
Addressing Summary Example

172

16

2

160

3

1

Host

172.16.2.160

10101100

00010000

00000010

10100000

2

Mask

255.255.255.192

11111111

11111111

11000000

11111111

Subnet

10101100

00010000

4

00000010

172.16.2.128

10000000

Broadcast

10101100

00010000

00000010

5

172.16.2.191

10111111

First

10101100

00010000

00000010

6

172.16.2.129

10000001

Last

10101100

00010000

00000010

172.16.2.190

10111110

7

640-802 CCNA


Class b subnet example
Class B Subnet Example

IP Host Address: 172.16.2.121

Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0

Network

Network

Subnet

Host

172.16.2.121:

10101100

00010000

00000010

01111001

11111111

11111111

11111111

00000000

255.255.255.0:

Subnet:

10101100

00010000

00000010

00000000

Broadcast:

10101100

00010000

00000010

11111111

Subnet Address = 172.16.2.0

Host Addresses = 172.16.2.1–172.16.2.254

Broadcast Address = 172.16.2.255

Eight bits of subnetting

640-802 CCNA


Subnet planning
Subnet Planning

20 subnets

5 hosts per subnet

Class C address:

192.168.5.0

192.168.5.16

Other

subnets

192.168.5.32

192.168.5.48

640-802 CCNA


Class c subnet planning example
Class C Subnet Planning Example

IP Host Address: 192.168.5.121

Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.248

Network

Network

Network

Subnet

Host

192.168.5.121:

11000000

10101000

00000101

01111001

11111111

11111111

11111111

11111000

11000000

10101000

00000101

01111000

Subnet:

Broadcast:

11000000

10101000

00000101

01111111

Subnet Address = 192.168.5.120

Host Addresses = 192.168.5.121–192.168.5.126

Broadcast Address = 192.168.5.127

Five Bits of Subnetting

640-802 CCNA


Broadcast addresses exercise
Broadcast Addresses Exercise

Address

Subnet Mask

Class

Subnet

Broadcast

201.222.10.60

255.255.255.248

C

201.222.10.56

201.222.10.63

15.16.193.6

255.255.248.0

15.16.192.0

15.16.199.255

A

128.16.32.13

255.255.255.252

B

128.16.32.12

128.16.32.15

153.50.6.27

255.255.255.128

B

153.50.6.0

153.50.6.127

640-802 CCNA


Vlan to vlan overview
VLAN to VLAN Overview

Fa0/0

Router on a stick

ISL

VLAN 2

VLAN 1

Application

TCP

IP

ISL

10.1.1.2

10.2.2.2

Ethernet

Network layer devices combine multiple broadcast domains

640-802 CCNA


Dividing a physical interface into subinterfaces
Dividing a Physical Interface into Subinterfaces

FastEthernet 0/0

FastEthernet 0/0.1

FastEthernet 0/0.2

FastEthernet 0/0.3

Physical interfaces can be divided into multiple subinterfaces

640-802 CCNA


Isl encapsulation
ISL Encapsulation

Router(config-subif)# encapsulation islvlan identifier

  • Enables ISL on a subinterface

640-802 CCNA


Routing between vlans
Routing Between VLANs

FastE0/0

ISL

VLAN 2

VLAN 1

interface fastethernet 0/0 no ip address!interface fastethernet 0/0.1ip address 10.1.1.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation isl 1interface fastethernet 0/0.2ip address 10.2.2.1 255.255.255.0 encapsulation isl 2

10.1.1.2

10.2.2.2

640-802 CCNA


Routing between wans
Routing Between WANs

S0

ISL

172.16.1.1

172.16.1.2

VLAN 2

VLAN 1

Application

TCP

IP

10.1.1.2

10.2.2.2

ISL

Ethernet

interface Serial0 ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0

640-802 CCNA


What is routing 1
What is Routing? (1)

10.120.2.0

172.16.1.0

To route, a router needs to know:

  • Destination addresses

  • Sources it can learn from

  • Possible routes

  • Best route

  • Maintain and verify routing information

640-802 CCNA


What is routing 2
What is Routing? (2)

10.120.2.0

172.16.1.0

E0

S0

NetworkProtocol

DestinationNetwork

Exit Interface

Routed Protocol: IP

ConnectedLearned

10.120.2.0172.16.1.0

E0S0

  • Routers must learn destinations that are not directly connected

640-802 CCNA


Identifying static and dynamic routes
Identifying Static and Dynamic Routes

Dynamic Route

  • Uses a route that a network routing protocol adjusts automatically for topology or traffic changes

Static Route

  • Uses a route that a networkadministrator enters into the router manually

640-802 CCNA


Static routes
Static Routes

Stub Network

172.16.1.0

SO

Network

A

B

B

172.16.2.2

172.16.2.1

  • Configure unidirectional static routes to and from a stub network to allow communications to occur.

640-802 CCNA


Static route example
Static Route Example

Stub Network

172.16.1.0

SO

Network

10.0.0.0

A

B

B

172.16.2.2

172.16.2.1

ip route 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.2.1

  • This is a unidirectional route. You must have a route configured in the opposite direction.

640-802 CCNA


Default routes
Default Routes

Stub Network

172.16.1.0

Network

SO

10.0.0.0

A

B

B

172.16.2.2

172.16.2.1

ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.16.2.2

  • This route allows the stub network to reach all known networks beyond router A.

640-802 CCNA


Blank for pagination
Blank for pagination

640-802 CCNA


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