OUTLINE • DynamicandStaticRouting • StaticRoutingInHostsand a DefaultRoute • - AdvantagesandDisadvantagesStaticRouting • DynamicRoutingandRouters • - AdvantagesandDisadvantagesDynamicRouting • What is VOIP-VoiceOver IP? • TheMotivationandchallenge of IP Technology • A Basic IP TelephoneSystem • VOIP is advantagesanddisadvantages • What is PSTN? • PSTN is advantagesanddisadvantages • What is VoIPsecurity? What is a IP? • TCP/IP protocols What is Router? • Host-Based vs. DedicatedRouters What is ip routingandhow is it done? Link StateRoutingProtocols • OSPF (OpenShortestPathFirst) - OSPF areas - An Example OSPF Graph • IS-IS (IntermediateSystem-to-IntermediateSystem) Distance-vectorroutingprotocols • RIP (RoutingInformationProtocol) - RIP Packet Format • IGRP/EIGRP (EnhancedInteriorGatewayRoutingProtocol) RoutingTable • Contents of an IP RoutingTable RoutingTypes • IGP (InteriorGatewayProtocol) • EGP(ExteriorGatewayRoutingProtocol)
What is IP? • Is a data orientedprotocol • Is a network layerprotocol in the internet protocolsuite • IP address Is unique address that certain electronic devices use in order to identify • Ipaddressstreetaddressorphonenumber thought
Structure of IP Address and Subnet • IP -> a.b.c.d 0<= a,b,c,d =< 255 • IP Address exist 0-255. (4 octet) • A system or network card has a one more IP Address • The number of last group has a 0 this is Network Address or this number is 255. It is called Broadcast Address.
Structure of Domain and IP Address Structure of IP Address is private because of remembering for easily. • www.itu.edu.tr -> 188.8.131.52 • www.google.com -> 184.108.40.206
Groups of IP Addresses <7 bit>< 24 bit > • Class A – 1-126 A – 0xxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx < 14 bit > < 16 bit > • Class B – 128-191 B – 10xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx < 21 bit ><8 bit> • Class C – 192-223 C – 110xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx < 28 bit – manybits > • Class D – 224-239 D– 1110xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx • 0.0.0.0 defaultrouting • 127.x.x.x loopback IP Address • Class E includefirst 4 bitsbegin 1111 • Class D is a Multicast IP Address
SubnetandSubnet Mask Subnet Masks Masks of Bits • Class A 255.0.0.0 11111111 00000000 00000000 00000000 • Class B 255.255.0.0 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000 • Class C 255.255.255.0 11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000
Ports FTP HTTP DNS .... Port Port Port Port TCP UDP IP & ICMP PhysicalLayer
TCP/IP • It is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet • TCP/IP is a two-layer program. The higher layer, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) The lower layer, Internet Protocol (IP) • TCP/IP communication is primarily point-to-point • Protocols related to TCP/IP include the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) movie TCP
What is a Router? • A computer networking device that buffers and forwards data packets • Routing occurs at layer 3 (the Network layer) of the OSI seven-layer protocol stack. • Routing is most commonly associated with the Internet Protocol • Router means Connection between different networks... sample example: 192.168.0.1 to 10.0.0.1.
Host-Based vs. DedicatedRouters • Zebra vs. Cisco • In the past vs. now • Cheap vs. expensive • Is no highly optimize switching IP packets vs. highly switching IP packets • Is not high performance vs. high performance • Inflexibility vs. flexibility
What is ip routing and how is it done? • It is an umbrellatermforthe set of protocols • Refers to selecting paths in a computer network along which to send data. • Routingdiffersfrombridging • The Internet, for the purpose of routing, is divided into Autonomous Systems(ASs).
Device C is acting as a routerbetweenthesetwonetworks • If A wantstosend a packetto E, it mustfirstsend it to C who can thenforwardthepacketto E.
The IP Routingprotocolsenablerouterstobuildup a forwardingtablethat correlates final destinationswithnext hop addresses. Theseprotocolsinclude: • IGRP(InteriorGatewayRoutingProtocol) • IS-IS(IntermediateSystem - IntermediateSystem) • OSPF(OpenShortestPathFirst) • RIP(RoutingInformationProtocol)
Link StateRoutingProtocols OSPF (OpenShortestPathFirst) • It uses path cost as its routing metric • is perhaps the most widely-used IGP in large networks.
Link State Routing Protocols IS-IS (IntermediateSystem-to-IntermediateSystem) • It is a protocol used by network devices (routers) to determine the best way to forward datagrams or packets • It is intended for use within an administrative domain or network • IS-IS uses Dijkstra's algorithm for identifying the best path through the network • Did not prefer
Distance-VectorRoutingProtocols RIP (RoutingInformationProtocol) • RoutingInformationProtocol • Helps routers dynamically adapt to changes of network connections • The routers exchange network reachability information with their nearest neighbors. • Has number of hop counts 15. • Autonomoussystem (A.S) • Do not sendthesubnet mask address
Distance-Vector Routing Protocols IGRP/EIGRP (EnhancedInteriorGatewayRoutingProtocol) • Is a kind of IGP • Number of hop counts 16 • Usedwithlargenetworks • Classfulroutingprotocol • Maximumnumber of hop counters 255 • AutonomuosSystem (A.S) • Allroutershavethesame A.S numbers in thesame A.S • Sendthesubnet mask addressmovie AS
What is RoutingTable? • Referring to a database on a router. • Store that routers' information in the database. • Direct forwarding by matching destination addresses to the network paths used to reach them. Contents of an IP Routing Table • Network Destination • NetMask • Gateway • Interface • Metric
RoutingTypes IGP(InteriorGatewayProtocol) • Uses a routingmetrictochoose an optimal pathtoeachdestination. • Autonomous system(A.S) is freetochooseitsown IGP • Providetochangeinformationbetweendifferentsystem • Easytoinstallandoperate • Comlexandmoretraffic
Routing Types • EGP(ExteriorGatewayRoutingProtocol) • Finds a pathtoeachdestination, but cannotfind an optimal pathbecause it cannotcompareroutingmetricsfrommultiple A.S • Exchange routinginformaitonwith a routerautonomoussystem (A.S) • Complextoinstallandoperate • Moreflexibilityandlesstraffic
Dynamic and Static Routing StaticRoutingInHostsand a DefaultRoute • Inflexible • Does not requireextrarouting software • Mostshostusestaticrouting • Host’sroutingtablecontainstwoentires: +oneforthe network towhichthehostattaches +a defaultentrythatdirectsallothertrafficto a specificrouter.
Advantages and Disadvantages StaticRouting? Advantages of theStaticRouting • Simpletoconfigure • Easytopredictsmallnetworks Disadvantages of theStaticRouting • Does not scalewell in largenetworks • Changesrequiremanualreconfiguration • Cannot be automaticallyroutedaround
Dynamic and Static Routing DynamicRouting • Itperforms the same function as static routing except it is more robust. • Dynamic routing allows routing tables in routers to change as the possible routes change. • There are several protocols used to support dynamic routing including RIP and OSPF.
Advantages and Disadvantages Dynamic Routing? Advantages of the Dynamic Routing -scalability and adaptability -can grow more quickly and larger -adapt to changes in the network topology Disadvantages of the Dynamic Routing -complex structure
What is VOIP-VoiceOver IP? VoIP, VoiceOverInternet Protokol • Usecircuit-switchedtelephonenetworks in the VOIP system. • Is therouting of voiceconversationsoverthe Internet orthroughanyother IP-based network. • Havesomeprotocolssuch as VOIP protocols.(Network VoiceProtocol) • Is economic • Essipaciallypreferedbythecompanies • Protocolscarryvoiceand data • Usesomedevicessuch as Gateway, IP router • ADC(analogtodigitalconverter) • DAC (digitaltoanlaogconverter) • Usesdigitalplace but telephoneusesanlaogplace. • Lesstraffic (bandwidth is not busy)
VOIP Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages: • transmission of data, voice & video possible • scalability • cheap • lesstraffic (bandwith) Disadvantages: • Thequality of sound at timesbecomeunpredictable • Echo movie VOIP
What is PSTN? PSTN (publicswitchedtelephone network) • Is a circuit-switchedtelephonenetworks • Gatewayprovidetochange ADC or DAC using PSTN. • Moretraffic (bandwidth is busy)
PSTN Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Well established technologyEasy maintenanceHassle free set-up processSimplicity in usage procedures Disadvantages Dedicated line required to complete a callLimited scalabilityOptimum usage of bandwidth not possibleMonthly fees applicable for maintenanceHigher call charges
What is VoIP security? • Businesses of allsizesadopting IP telephonyneedtoseriouslyconsideritssecurityimplications. • Threestandout as themostdangerous, particularlytosmallerorganisations: • denial of service, • spit • fraud • Themajority of consumerVoIPsolutions do not supportencryption yet.
Sources INTERNET ADRESLERİ • http://www.cisco.com/public/technotes/tech_protocol.shtml • http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/routing.htm • http://www.princeton.edu/~wolf/modern-vlsi/Overheads/CHAP7-1/sld005.htm • http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid7_gci214031,00.html(???) • http://compnetworking.about.com/od/workingwithipaddresses/f/getrouteripaddr.htm(???) • http://www.olympos.org/article/articleview/1942/1/10/cisco_aglarda_yonlendirme • http://ekinoks.cu.edu.tr/internet/konu_8.htm • www.bilgisayarogren.com/network9.doc • http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C4%B0nternet_ileti%C5%9Fim_kurallar%C4%B1_dizisi • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Routing • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Routed_protocol • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PSTN • http://www.ysn.ru/docs/zebra/www.zebra.org/zebra/Static-Route-Commands.html • http://www.inetdaemon.com/tutorials/internet/ip/routing/dyamic_vs_static.shtml • http://www.securityfocus.com/infocus/1767 • http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voip KİTAPLAR • İnternet - Kürşat Çağıltay • Internet workingwith TCP/IP - Douglas E. Comer • Bilgisayar Ağları ve Güvenliği - Alper Özbilen • internet teknolojileri - zafer demirkol • Computernetworksandinternetswith Internet Applications - Douglas E. COmer • Managing IP networkswithCiscoRouters - Scott M. Ballew • Cisco TCP/IP routingprofessionalreference - ChrisLewis
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