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Public Private Partnership: aspects of national model implementation. Natasa Gospic 1 , Milan Jankovic 2 , Dragan Bogojević 3 1 Univesity of Belgrade, Traffic and Transport Engineering Faculty, Belgrade, 2 Univesity of Belgrade, School of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade,

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1 industry analyst network june 2009

Public Private Partnership: aspects of national model implementation

Natasa Gospic1, Milan Jankovic2, Dragan Bogojević3

1Univesity of Belgrade, Traffic and Transport Engineering Faculty, Belgrade, 2Univesity of Belgrade, School of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade,

3ICT-INFO, Belgrade, Serbia

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

1 | Industry Analyst Network | June 2009


Introduction: Public Private Partnership (PPP): Academia approach

Gap model and role of the PPP (Author’s WB & ITU)

Proposal for National model of the NGN and BB deployment and its decomposition

Aspects of national model implementations

National Broadband Network: Multi-layer open access model

Serbian PPP Delphi Survey

Proposals and Conclusions

Regulator s metodology proposal for us policy


Preparation of detailed overview of the situation of telecom infrastructure and telecom service provisioning within the whole territory of the country

Proposal for scope and content of US

Financial options

Recommendations for US implementation

Public discussion

US implementation

Project development is done by University Belgrade, TTEF


  • Data base

    • Development of Main Data Base (all settlements in country – 4.715 in Serbia)

    • Locations (Settlements) without fixed telecom services (0% penetration)

    • Locations with low penetration (less then 4% and less then 10%)

    • Identification of areas lacking mobile signal


    • Elements for techno-economic analysis

  • Criteria for definition of critical settlements for US

    • Basic :

      • + 20 households and/or

      • + 50 inhabitants

    • Additional:

      • no mobile signal – critical

      • inhabitant’s index (2002/1991)

      • school, post office, ambulance, on the border to EU....

  • Structuring the settlements in the list of critical settlements for US

    • Number of inhabitants

    • Potential tourist locations

    • Natural resources

    • Requirements for NB and BB access

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

Academia proposal for nb us and bb us per region
Academia Proposal for NB US and BB US per region

Serbian regional organization 2008: 24 regions and city of Belgrade

This proposal is not endorsed!

Scenario ANB US

  • Pčinjski

  • Jablanički

  • Raški

  • Pirotski

  • Zlatiborski

  • Nišavski

  • Toplički

  • Rasinski

Scenario B


  • Zapadno-bački

  • Sremski

  • Podunavski

  • Braničevski

  • Srednje-banatski

  • Severno-banatski

  • Moravički

  • Severno-bački

  • Južno-banatski

  • Južno-bački

  • Kolubarski

  • Borski

  • Grad Beograd

  • Pomoravski

  • Zaječarski

  • Mačvanski i

  • Šumadijski

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

Word bank gap model theoretical framework for uas
Word Bank: Gap model, theoretical framework for UAS*

  • Over last few years operators have bridged the market efficiency gap for voice

  • The smart subsidy zone has narrowed

  • The true access gap is typically last 5% of total population, but 20% in rural areas

*Source: Telecom Regulation Handbook, Universal Service: Distinctions Within the Access Gap, WB 2011

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

Authors proposal for a national model of the ngn and bb deployment
Authors’ proposal for a national model of the NGN and BB deployment*

P w




Gospic & Bogojevic, NGN Deployment in Developing Countries, ITU-D Forum for Arab Region, Dec. 2010

Bogojevic & Gospic, Modeling of NGN deployment, African Journal of Business Management, July, 2011

PWSN- People with special needs

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

Analytical and structural framework

To transform the proposed framework into a model for the particular devC, it is necessary:

To determine the existing level of access,

To determine frontiers of market efficiency,

To determine affordability frontiers in relation with household income

To determine sustainability frontiers in relation to the potential investment cost

Also in order to define structural components of the model it is necessary to determine the following:

Detailed input data related to market-specific features;

Costs for implementation of possible technologies

Algorithms that represent the process of building the infrastructure, based on geography, population, and penetration;

Revenue (per customer and total) and

Calculation of the net profit and ROI

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012


Model decomposition
Model decomposition* deployment*

*Source: N. Gospic & D. Bogojevic, ITU Cross Regional Seminar, Chisinau Moldova, Sep. 2011

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

Application of the proposed analytical framework for serbia
Application of deployment*the proposed Analytical Framework for Serbia

  • The frontier for the existing level of acceptance is set to 600 € and the affordability frontier at 300 €. (The average monthly income of households in Serbia in September 2012 is amounted to around 500 €; for illustration, the average net salary amounted to 352€).

  • Research into the Serbian territory covered by ADSL and 3G services indicated that market oriented methods lead to good coverage in urban areas and poor coverage in rural areas.

Frontiers for the serbian national model the end of 2010
Frontiers for the Serbian national model (the end of 2010) deployment*


Bogojevic & Gospic, Modeling of NGN deployment, African Journal of Business Management, July, 2011


    • Develop the project to define frontiers and data

    • Pilot project to test this framework

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

Government s role

  • The government responsibilities frontiers are indicated (100% of population)

  • The Government financial resources have to be directed towards the development of services provided to citizens (e-Government, e-Health, e-Education, e-Procurement) in partnership with private sector.

  • Development of National Broadband Network –NBN (Strategy for e-communication development in RS 2010-2020)

  • National Commission for Broadband (high level officials)

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

How to build the national broadband network nbn
How to build the NATIONAL BROADBAND NETWORK deployment*(NBN)?





  • Coverage

  • Bitrate

  • Social and economic advantages

FTTx, Wireless/satellite technology selection based on technical and economic analysis

  • Transparent work

  • Fair competition

  • Guaranteed coverage

  • Government budget

  • Bank loans

  • Supplier credit

  • Public/private partnership


Establish a new company to build NBN?

  • First layer: open access passive network

  • Second layer: open access passive network

  • Interconnection points

  • Level playing field

  • Reasonable profit and return on investment (ROI)

  • Affordable prices

  • Efficient investments

Open access

Business plan

Operation model

Source: M. Jankovic ITU Regional Forum for Europe on Broadband, September 2012, Tirana, Republic of Albania

Innovations in nbn design multi layer open access model
Innovations in NBN design deployment*Multi-layer open access model

Local governments offering a network will sell bandwidth to communication operators wholesale and service providers retail, instead of doing business with private persons.

Infrastructure operators offering passive network (dark fiber)

Operators offering active network (wholesale access)

Service operators offering innovative services such as IPTV, with end-users

By applying this model, the NBN developers can further be divided as follows:

The main role of the state:


Universal coverage

Open access

Fair competition

Stimulate cooperation through partnerships (private/public sector...)


Utility player

Vertical service operator





Optical fiber

Infrastructure operator

(mainly local governments)



Access right

Source: M. Jankovic ITU Regional Forum for Europe on Broadband, September 2012, Tirana, Republic of Albania

Serbia bb4all situation
Serbia BB4All situation deployment*

  • Serbia adopted basic package of documents: Strategy of IS Development until 2020, Strategy of e-communication in Serbia from 2010 to 2020, Law on Electronic Communications and Strategy of broadband development up to 2012.

  • Strategy of IS Development has set objective to provide all citizens of the Serbia with high speed Internet up to 100 Mbps.

  • Strategy of e- communications, among others, has promoted model of national network based on passive optical infrastructure

  • The appropriate action plans, resources and government activities in order to achieve objectives are still not officially prepared.

  • Documents do not recognize PPP models and state subsidies.

  • Examples and the proposed model indicate that development of PPP policy is important.

  • Regulatory activities in this sense are very crucial.

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

Application of the ppp what are experts opinions
Application of the PPP – what are experts opinions? deployment*

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

Ppp delphi survey for application of the ppp and analytical framework
PPP Delphi Survey for application of the PPP and Analytical Framework

  • Questionnaire on the position of public-private partnerships in the development of broadband Internet access and role of PPP in Serbia is in progress (I phase of Delphi method)

  • Questionnaire sent to 30 Serbian experts (Academia, Regulator, Government, Private sector) first week of November 2012

  • For the moment answers received from 18 experts.

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

Answers on questionnaire

  • Consensus on questions

    • “Who is the key player in the implementation of BB to all citizens of Serbia?”.

      • “Both the government and the market should be included”

    • “Private operators will not invest in between sustainability and government frontiers”

      • All experts are agreed (Average 9.13, Median 10)

    • “Political support is enough for implementation of Digital Agenda for Serbia

      • Majority did not agreed (Average 3.00, Median 2)

    • Is financing using PPP for BB applicable?

      • All experts agreed (87%)

    • Is it necessary to define methods of Government intervention?

      • All experts agreed (87%). However, some comments refer that Government has no capacity for that, what could delay implementation

  • Different expert’s opinions on questions

    • Implementation of National Strategy for Information Society

    • Realization of National Broadband Network

    • Government investment for BB

  • Additional comments

    • Lack of e-services in local language will slow down BB

    • Low level of ICT skills will slow down BB

    • Domestic industry does not exist any more

Top ten proposals
Top ten proposals Framework

  • Definition and Scope of UAS have to be changed within time according to the country’s situation (Scope: US + UA => BB_UAS).

  • Broadband UAS policies should to migrate to Broadband policies (rural) to ensure “Broadband for all”.

  • Highlight of needs for innovation and creativity in identification of new services within UAS, like digital Broadcasting (BB_UAS + Digital Broadcasting => BB_UASB).

  • Commence with promotion of new services from e-Government package and their impact (eGov + eEDU + eHelth => BB_UASBG).

  • Identification of the broadband infrastructure serving for all purposes, including Critical Telecommunications Infrastructure (CTI).

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

Top ten proposals1
Top ten proposals Framework

  • Definition and implementation of National model for BB deployment, with identification of non-sustainable areas, which should be served with broadband Universal Service/Access, and be the scope of government support and/or PPP.

  • Recognition that multi stakeholder approach is only financial solution, with clear role of government’s state intervention.

  • Monitoring mechanism and benchmarking are critical factor.

  • Starting as soon as possible with pilot projects based on the proposed analytical model for investigating the limits of market efficiency, availability and sustainability.

  • Starting with activities on public-private partnerships (PPP) on local government level.

Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012

Thank you for your attention


Gospiic, Jankovic & Bogojevic, November 2012