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Hydropower: Electricity From Moving Water. By: Lauren Murphy and Candice Burgan. http://www.lasvegastourism.com/tours/hoover_dam.gif. Main goal. To provide an adequate and efficient natural source of energy without the burning of fossil fuels. To harness the energy of moving water

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hydropower electricity from moving water

Hydropower: Electricity From Moving Water

By: Lauren Murphy

and Candice Burgan

http://www.lasvegastourism.com/tours/hoover_dam.gif

main goal
Main goal
  • To provide an adequate and efficient natural source of energy without the burning of fossil fuels.
  • To harness the energy of moving water
  • To provide a cheap source of energy

http://www.danville-va.gov/upload/images/Utilities/Pinnacles%20Hydro.JPG

layout of a dam
Layout of a Dam

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html

how it works
How it works
  • Build a dam on a large river that has a large drop in elevation
  • The dam stores lots of water behind it in the reservoir
  • Near the bottom of the dam wall there is the water intake
  • Gravity causes it to fall through the penstock inside the dam
  • At the end of the penstock there is a turbine propeller, which is turned by the moving water
how it works contd
How it works contd.
  • The shaft from the turbine goes up into the generator, which produces the power
  • Power lines are connected to the generator that carry electricity
  • The water continues past the propeller through the tailrace into the river past the dam
hydroelectric generator
Hydroelectric generator

A hydraulic turbine converts the energy of flowing water into mechanical energy.

A hydroelectric generator converts this mechanical energy into electricity.

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html

hydroelectric power 9 8
Hydroelectric Power: 9.8%

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html

top generating countries
Top Generating Countries

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html

expense of power production
Expense of Power Production

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html

purpose of dams
Purpose of Dams

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html

provides 97 9 of all electricity by renewable resources
Provides 97.9% of all Electricity by Renewable Resources

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html

advantages
Advantages
  •  - Fuel is not burned so there is minimal pollution -Water to run the power plant is provided free by
  • nature -  It's renewable - rainfall renews the water in the reservoir, so the fuel is almost always there
  • No waste products
  • Moderate to high net energy
  • High efficiency (80%)
  • Low cost electricity
  • Long life span
  • Provides flood control below dam
  • Provides year-round water for irrigation and crop land
  • Useful for fishing and recreation due to reservoir
disadvantages environmental problems
Disadvantages/Environmental problems
  • High construction costs
  • High environmental impacts
  • High CO2 emissions from biomass decay in shallow reservoirs
  • Floods natural areas
  • Converts land habitat to lake habitat
  • Danger of collapse
  • Uproots people
  • Decreases fish harvest below dam
  • Decreases flow of natural fertilizer to land below dam
  • Large water loss due to evaporation
collapsing of dams
Collapsing of dams
  • Many dams aren’t maintained properly
  • Lack of concern about risk and problems
  • This causes mass-flooding and even loss of life
  • Internal erosion

http://www.hatchenergy.com/Innovations/Spring2006/guest_dam.html

problems with hydropower
Problems with hydropower
  • Takes up a lot of space
  • Costs are extremely high
  • Good land areas for construction have already been taken
  • Consumes a lot of time for planning and construction
  • The life expectancy of dams are only around 50 years
    • Even at this age these dams are considered to be at a high risk for failing
rate of construction
Rate of construction

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wuhy.html

make a difference
Make a difference
  • Hydroelectricity eliminates the flue gas emissions from fossil fuels, including pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, dust, and mercury in the coal.
  • Doesn’t contribute to global warming!

http://www.solcomhouse.com/Global_Warming.gif

technological obstacles
Technological obstacles
  • Building strong and efficient dams to withstand the passage of time
  • Find efficient ways to minimize environmental impacts

http://www.srh.noaa.gov/tlh/cpm/woodruff_dam_pic.jpg

political economic obstacles
Political/Economic obstacles
  • High production/building costs
  • Creating total revenue to build
  • Value tradeoffs
  • Market prices
  • Water use allocations cause controversy
  • Mass displacement of people
  • Large investments in energy sources (large scale dams)
three gorges dam
Three Gorges Dam
  • Largest dam in the world

http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2006/06/23/knDAM_wideweb__470x309,0.jpg

bibliography
Bibliography
  • http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hyhowworks.html
  • http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wuhy.html
  • http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epa_sum.html
  • http://www.lasvegastourism.com/tours/hoover_dam.gif
  • http://oilbeseeingyou.blogspot.com/2007/07/post-peak-dam-maintenance-or-lack.html
  • http://www.theage.com.au/ffximage/2006/06/23/knDAM_wideweb__470x309,0.jpg
  • http://www.srh.noaa.gov/tlh/cpm/woodruff_dam_pic.jpg
  • http://www.hatchenergy.com/Innovations/Spring2006/guest_dam.html
  • http://www.danville-va.gov/upload/images/Utilities/Pinnacles%20Hydro.JPG