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OPTIMUM WATER MANAGEMENT ON SOYBEAN UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION (ダイズの節水栽培における最適灌漑法). RADEN ACHMAD BUSTOMI ROSADI. National consumption. 2.68. 2.02. production. 1.38. 0.71. import. 1.31. 1.30. (65 %). (48 %). ( in million tons). Background.

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optimum water management on soybean under deficit irrigation

OPTIMUM WATER MANAGEMENT ON SOYBEAN UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION(ダイズの節水栽培における最適灌漑法)

RADEN ACHMAD BUSTOMI ROSADI

background

National consumption

2.68

2.02

production

1.38

0.71

import

1.31

1.30

(65 %)

(48 %)

(in million tons)

Background

Soybean in Indonesia

1999

2004

Major problem of Soybean production :

Availability of water (limiting factor)

Implementing deficit irrigation: inevitable

objective
Objective :
  • To determine the critical water content (c) and water stress coefficient (Ks) of soybean plant to obtain of optimum water management.
  • To investigate the influence of deficit irrigation at individual growth stages on yield of soybean, so that the irrigation schedule for the individual growth stages can be made to ensure optimum growth and production of soybean.
slide4

Lampung Province

Bandarlampung

INDONESIA

MATERIAL AND METHOD

Location of the experimental site

Lampung University, Faculty of Agriculture

43 m above sea level

Period: 2000, 2001, and 2003

slide5

2000, and 2003 experiments

Water Deficit level

TREATMENTS

0

FC

Design experiment: Randomized block design, with 5 treatments and 4 replication

WD1 (D1)

20

WD2 (D2)

40

WD3 (D3)

Irrigation

60

WD4 (D4)

80

WD5 (D5)

Daily

100

PWP

D1 ---- D5 treatments

For 2001 experiment

% of TAW

slide6

The growth period of soybean

2 weeks before harvesting

Irrigation was stopped

DAT

85

0

15

28

42

70

Seedling

Harvesting

slide7

air-dried soil

Soybean seed

Black plastic container (10L vol.)

7Kg air-dried soil

slide8

Evapotranspiration (ET)

Transpiration (T)

Gravimetric Method

Handy can

Soil water daily monitoring

Irrigation =

ET or T (previous day)

slide11
Agronomic variables evaluated:
  • plant height
  • leaf number
  • flower number and pod number
  • total biomasses
  • yield
  • Crop water requirement (CWR)
  • Water Use Efficiency (WUE)
  • Yield Efficiency (YE)

Statistical analysis :

}5 % level

  • F- test
  • Least Significant Different (LSD) test
slide13
1. Experiment period: June-sept 2000

The effect of WD on leaf number

Leaf number (pieces)

WD3

start to

stress

P= 0.5

c = 30.5 % (vol)

Week

slide14

The ratio ETa/ ETm, and water stress coefficient (Ks) in Ultisol

(p) = available water depletion fraction

*) in stress condition

Assume:The ET at WD1 was ETm

Ks =ETa/ETm or ETc adj/ ETc (Allen,1998)

The water stress coefficient (Ks) at WD3 (p=0.5) = 0.78

the effect of wd on wue and ye in ultisol
The effect of WD on WUE, and YE in Ultisol

Optimum

Yield

WD3

conserve

10.1 %

of water

slide16

Ky = 0.85

The relation between relative yield decrease (1-Ya/Ym)

and relative evapotranspiration deficit (1-ETa/ETm) in Ultisol

The Ky of soybean for the entire growing period of WD = 0.85

slide17

2. Experiment period: June –Sept 2003

The effect of WD on leaf area index

Leaf area index (cm2)

WD3 in stress

c= 32.7 % (vol)

WD5 in stress

c= 28.4 % (vol)

Week

slide18

The ratio Ta/ Tm, and water stress coefficient (Ks) in Andisol

*) in stress condition

WD4 = 0.52

WD5 = 0.38

The Ks average:

WD2 = 0.82

WD3= 0.68

the effect of wd on the total biomass yield cwr wue and ye in andisol
The effect of WD on the total biomass, yield, CWR, WUE, and YE in Andisol

O

p

t

i

m

u

m

yield

WD3 conserve 24.6 % of water

slide20

Ky=0.507

Ky=1

The relation between relative yield decreased (1-Ya/Ym)

and relative transpiration deficit (1-Ta/Tm) in Andisol

The Ky of soybean for the entire growing period of WD = 0.507

3 experiment period august october 2001
3. Experiment period: August- October 2001

Crop Water Requirement

P= 0.5

c = 26 % (vol)

slide22

The effect of available water deficit to the Ta/Tm

at various growth stages in Ultisol

yield
Yield

No Stress

Stress

Condition

Compared

to

WD2

slide25

The relationship between the p and YE (g/g)

at the different growth stages in Ultisol

conclusion
CONCLUSION
  • The critical water content (c) of soybean:

Ultisol = 30.5% (week IV)

Andisol = 28.4 % (week V)

32.7% (week VI)

36.9% (week VIII)

  • The coefficient stress (Ks) of soybean:

Ultisol = 0.78

Andisol = 0.82 (AW deficit 20-40%)

0.68 (AW deficit 40-60%)

0.52 (AW deficit 60-80%)

0.38 (AW deficit 80-100%)

  • The yield response factor (Ky) of soybean:

Ultisol = 0.851

Andisol =0.507

slide27

The optimum yield of soybean:

The deficit irrigation at 40-60% of AW deficit

conserve of water

Andisol:

Ultisol :

24.6 %

10.1%

slide29

Thank you very much

Arigatou

gozaimasu