Sources of Irrigation • Depending upon the availability • Surface water • Groundwater • Rainfall conditions • Rivers • Tanks….. (Practisedin India)
Canal irrigation • Accounting > 30% of net irrigated area. • Canal irrigation- extensive plains • Drained by well distributed perennial rivers • northern plains, coastal plains, deltas and broad valleys of the peniunsula • Inundation canals -taken out without constructing dams or 'bunds' • Get water - stream is flooded • Have limited validity. • The post-independence multi-purpose projects • e.g., Bhakra-Nangal(Punjab), Damodar Valley Gharkhand and West Bengal) and the Nagarjunasagar (Karnataka) projects Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal, coastal Orissa and coastal Andhra Pradesh
Irrigation Schemes- Multipurpose Projects • River valley project serving a number of purposes all at once (i) Storage - future use(ii) Supply - irrigation(ill) Hydroelectricity(iv) Flood control(v) Soil erosion (afforestation& water flow control)(vi) Inland navigation (vii) Reclamation of water-logged lands(viii) Fish culture(ix) Development of riversides (recreation spots, resorts).
Malaprabha , Upper Krishna Project, Tawa Project, Bhima Project, Jayakwadi Project , Narmada Project , Sardar Sarovar Project , Hirakud Project, Bhakra , Nangal, Beas Project, Thein Dam , Rajasthan Canal Project (Indira Gandhi Canal) , Parambikulam Aliyar, Sarda Sahayak Project, RamgangaProject, Banasagar Project, Farakka Project, , Knngasabati Project , Mayurakshi Project , Damodar Valley Project , Dul Hasti project , Salal Project
TANK IRRIGATION • Practiced - Deccan and South India • Because – Rocky land & soil non porous. • Rainwater cannot sink into ground- digging wells difficult. • Digging canals difficult and expensive • Drawbacks • Cover large areas • Evaporation >> • Not perennial supply of water
Well irrigation • Water obtained from subsoil • Lifted by suitable devices • manual or animal labour, pumping sets • 30 million acres (>55 % of total irrigated area) • Common in alluvial plain areas • Water table is fairly high • Soft nature of the soil- wells easy to dig • Yield of crops is rewarding. dug-wells to tubewells Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra