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UNDERSTANDING THE LANGUAGE-READING CONNECTION:HOW SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGY CAN SUPPORT LITERACY SUCCESS Herb and Joanne Hein, Speech-Language PathologistsHein Speech-Language Pathology, Inc. Third Annual Spring Conference San Diego Branch of the International Dyslexia Association April 28th, 2012
WHAT IS A SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST (SLP)? • “PATHOLOGY” = disease processes & disorders • SPEECH-LANGUAGE PATHOLOGIST studies disorders that interfere with communication. • EVALUATE, DIAGNOSE & TREAT • Master’s Degree or Ph.D. • National & State Licensing
INPUT Receptive Language
INPUT CHANNELS (Receptive Language) • LISTENING • HEARING the sounds of the language • ATTACHING MEANING to the sounds • UNDERSTANDING connected language • READING • DECODING THE SYMBOLS to represent sounds • COMBINING THE SOUNDS into words • COMPREHENDING THE MEANING of the words • UNDERSTANDING the sentences, paragraphs, chapters, stories, etc.
OUTPUT Expressive Language
OUTPUT CHANNELS (Speech Production & Expressive Language) • Speaking • ARTICULATION • PRODUCING SOUNDS with our mouth muscles • DEVELOPING RULES (Phonological Awareness) • EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE • FORMULATING IDEAS • FINDING WORDS • SYNTAX - organizing word order • Writing • SPELLING • WRITTEN EXPRESSION • WRITTEN LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS • Punctuation • Capitalization
THE COGNITIVE SKILLSTHAT SUPPORTSUCCESSFUL LANGUAGE “COGNITION” = THINKING
SOME COGNITIVE SKILLS ARE… • AROUSAL = being in a wakeful state • ATTENTION = ability to focus on an activity • SHIFTING FOCUS = from one thing to another • CONCENTRATION = paying focused attention to one activity, while ignoring unrelated information • DISCRIMINATION = sorting out the important details from a field with lots of extra information
MORE COGNITIVE SKILLS ARE… • MEMORY: • STORAGE • storing information in the brain for later use • RETRIEVAL • pulling out the information when it is needed • CATEGORIZATION • grouping related information together for improved storage, processing, & retrieval • SEQUENTIAL ORGANIZATION • organizing information in a logical order
HIGHER-LEVEL COGNITIVE SKILLS • ASSOCIATION - making connections between bits of information • INTEGRATION – applying these connections to what you already know • ANALYSIS - breaking down information into smaller parts • SYNTHESIS – making new conclusions, based on the analysis • ABSTRACT REASONING & PROBLEM SOLVING– thinking in a flexible way, so we can draw new conclusions and solve problems • GENERALIZATION– taking what is learned in one setting and applying it to other situations, without needing to re-learn the skill for each new setting
EVALUATION DIAGNOSINGSPEECH & LANGUAGE DISORDERS
SPEECH & EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE TESTS EXAMINE: • COGNITIVE – LANGUAGE SKILLS • Sentence repetition • EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE • Expressive vocabulary • Grammar testing • Defining words • Narrative Language • Problem-solving • THE LANGUAGE SAMPLE • OTHER COMMUNICATION AREAS • ARTICULATION / SPEECH PRODUCTION • STUTTERING / FLUENCY • VOICE PRODUCTION
WRITTEN LANGUAGE TESTS EXAMINE: • SINGLE WORD WRITING • SPELLING • FOLLOW DIRECTIONS IN WRITING • SENTENCE FORMULATION • From a picture • Write a sentence using several words • WRITTEN NARRATIVE LANGUAGE • DEFEND PRO & CON VIEWPOINTS
RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE TESTS EXAMINE: • COGNITIVE – LANGUAGE SKILLS • Auditory attention, discrimination and memory • Listen for same-different words • Memory for numbers, words, and sentences • Screening for an auditory processing disorder • PHONEMIC AWARENESS • Rhymes • Identifying the number of syllables in words and phrases • Beginning-middle-ending sounds in words • Blending of sounds into words • Remembering and manipulating sounds in words • adding or subtracting or substituting sounds • COMPREHENSION • Following directions (responding to pictures, following commands) • Receptive vocabulary testing • Story comprehension (Narrative Language) • Recalling details • Processing increasingly abstract questions
THERAPY: THE PLAN IN A NUTSHELL • Build Skills • Teach Compensatory Strategies • Develop Environmental Accommodations • Establish Team Connections
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS • Word Discrimination • Cane came (tongue vs. lips) • place plays (voiceless voiced) • Sound Matching- • Duck….run, kick, dice…same first sound? • Face…cake, fish, mice…same last sound?
PERCEIVING AND MANIPULATING SOUNDS AND SYLLABLES • Phonological Segmentation- • Say “cup”. Now say “cup” without saying /k/ • Say “toothbrush”. Now say toothbrush without saying “tooth” • Phonological Blending- • Listen to these sounds and then say them altogether: s….t…..a…..m…..p • Phoneme Reversals- • Say “noops” now say “noops” backwards
DEVELOPING CUES FOR PROCESSING OF SOUNDS • Analyze it for yourself!!!! • . Say the word. Feel the sounds in your mouth. • Watch and feel how the sounds are made. • Notice the position of the sound or syllable in the word…First?…second?..third?…last? • Let’s change it up and track the moves!! • Let’s add (+) a sound. • Let’s take away (-) a sound. • Let’s change the order of the sounds. • top stop tops
PERCEIVING THE AMOUNT AND ORDER OF SYLLABLES • We increase the complexity by having the student analyze more than one syllable. • Say the word. Feel the sounds and syllables in your mouth. • Tap the number of syllables • What is the order of the syllables? • Which is first? second? third? last? • Belief disbelief • Image imagining imagination • Possible impossible impossibility
SYLLABLEENCODING-DECODING • Lindamood-Bell programs • “Auditory Conceptualization” • Decoding & encoding sounds • This says bip. If this says bip, show me blip.
ALERTING THE BRAIN TO VOCABULARY • ATTEND..DIFFERENTIATE.. ASSOCIATE • First second between last • Before during then meanwhile after • because since therefore • Pre- in- dis- inter- post- • -ful -er -ation -ness -ly • SAY IT READ IT USE IT REMEMBER IT
IMPROVING COMPREHENSION OF VOCABULARY • Many students don’t learn vocabulary through osmosis. • Often the meaning of the word does not easily pass into the brain of the student, so direct work is required to guide the process.
EXPERIENCING VOCABULARY THROUGH ALL SENSES • Since some students don’t learn new vocabulary through osmosis, • Vocabulary needs to be experienced through different modalities: • Hearing it..and simultaneously seeing what it relates to • Seeing how it is used in a picture or scene • Experiencing how it can be acted out in a meaningful scenario • Using it with related words In a meaningful context.
INCREASING ACTIVE LEARNING • When you don’t know the meaning of a word • Don’t be passive. • Assert yourself and ask questions • Do this with vocabulary and other information you need • Let me know when you hear something you do not understand I DO UNDERSTAND. I DON’T UNDERSTAND
COMPREHENSION OF SENTENCES & PARAGRAPHS • Can the student understand the connections between words? • Determine where comprehension breakdowns occur. • Help the student analyze and put the pieces together.
FACTORS THAT ALLOW FOR THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF COMPREHENSION • RATE- How fast? • AMOUNT-How much at one time? • DURATION- How long at one time? • COMPLEXITY-How difficult? The student can learn to balance these factors so they work the best for comprehension!
1 FINDING AND UNDERSTANDING DETAILSWho? When? and Why? Steven Stoppers was happy in the afternoon because he got to ride on a roller coaster. Who was happy?______________________________________________ Whenwas he happy? _________________________________________ Why was he happy? __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________
Who?When?Why? Billy stayed up until 12:00 midnight playing video games. When he did finally go to bed, he forgot to set his alarm. In the morning he missed the bus to school. Who was playing video games? ____________________________________ When did he go to sleep? _________________________________________ When did he miss the bus? ________________________________________ Why did he miss the bus? ________________________________________ What should he do the next time so he does not have the same problem? ______________________________________________________________
BE AWARE OF PUNCTUATION so you know when to stop! • Each sentence tells about one thought. • Notice the phrases in sentences. • Pause at the commas • Completely stop at the periods. • Notice how the thought in one sentence is different from the thought in the next.
INFERRING MEANING • What are the clue words that help us determine how each character felt and why? • _____ maybe felt ________ because ___________ • 1. Sam knew he had worked really hard and deserved the perfect grade he got. His heart swelled as he watched his teacher put the A+ test paper on the bulletin board and add the golden star sticker that he was hoping for. • 2. Jen had waited all week for this moment. She had worked so hard to make the team. She ran to read the list that had just been posted on the coach’s door. Her heart sank and she fought back some tears when she did not see her name on the list.
GUIDING THINKINGGUIDING COGNITION • FOCUS ATTENTION • FOCUS UPON KEY DETAILS • WHAT IS MOST RELEVANT? • ACTIVELY SEARCH FOR ANSWERS • GUIDE SO STUDENTS LEARN TO GUIDE THEIR OWN THINKING
GUIDED READING QUESTIONS • WHO- Highlight the name of the person in the sentence. • WHERE- Underline the word that tells you where the character is. • WHAT- Highlight what the character did. • WHEN- Circle when it happened. • WHY- Underline the words that tell why it happened. • FEELINGS- Highlight the words that tell how the character felt.
GUIDING HIGHER LEVEL ANALYSIS • Focus on pronoun referents • Circle what “it” is referring to. • Underline who “he” is referring to. • Focus on sequence of events • Circle what happened first and underline what happened second. • Underline what happened before he fell. • Focus on character traits • Highlight in green what the character did that was friendly and empathetic.
GET INVOLVED IN READING. ASK YOURSELF QUESTIONS! • What is going on? • What is happening now? So what? • Relevance • Why is this important? • Personal involvement or reflection • How do I feel about this? • Cause and effect • How did this happen? • What will happen next?
LEARNING THE FRAMEWORK OF NARRATIVES (STORIES) A program by Maryellen Rooney Moreau Use a stable representation for organizing “story grammar”. • WHO are the characters? roles and relationships? • WHERE is the setting? • WHATkicks off the story-sets it into action • HOWdoes the character feel in response to the event? • WHAT is the character’s plan? • HOW the character takes action • WHAT are the direct consequences of the action • HOWcharacter feels about the consequences?
WHAT YOU CAN DO TO SUPPORT IMPROVED LITERACY THROUGHSPEECH & LANGUAGE SKILLS
IF YOUR CHILD IS RECEIVING SLP SERVICES… • Sit in on therapy • Ask questions!! • Understand your child’s Individualized Education Plan (IEP) • Connect your child’s school team with your outside providers • Put together a COMMUNICATION BINDER • Follow up with therapy homework • Make suggestions
GENERAL TIPS FOR PARENTS • READ WITH YOUR CHILD…OFTEN! • Learn about language & learning disorders • Explain the “game-plan” to your child • Understand the assessment reports & treatment plan • Educate your child’s educators • Praise your child • when he asks for clarification • when he uses strategies he has been learning • Help your child write down key words/pictures to help her remember information
MORE TIPS FOR PARENTS • Slow things down! • Encourage First-time Listening • Limit background noise (dishwasher / TV…) • Write or draw important concepts to help illustrate words • Familiarize yourself with technology • BE PATIENT!! • AND PERSISTENT!!
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