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Unit 2 - Reproduction. Chapter 4 – The Role of the Nucleus. Section 4.1 – The Function of the Nucleus. the nucleus is the organelle that is responsible for heredity and for controlling the functions of the cell. the control centre of the cell

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unit 2 reproduction

Unit 2 - Reproduction

Chapter 4 – The Role of the Nucleus

section 4 1 the function of the nucleus
Section 4.1 – The Function of the Nucleus
  • the nucleus is the organelle that is responsible for heredity and for controlling the functions of the cell.
  • the control centre of the cell
  • The nucleus contains the master set of instructions that determines what each cell will become, how it will function, when it will grow and divide and when it will die.
traits
Traits
  • Trait: a particular feature that can vary in size or form from individual to individual within a species.
  • Biological traits are inherited from biological parents.
  • Q: List 5 traits that you have inherited.
heredity
Heredity
  • Heredity: the process through which patterns of traits are passed on from an individual to its offspring.
  • Q: What is the likelihood of a person having Huntington’s disease if one of their parents had it?
  • A:
deoxyribonucleic acid dna
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  • Found in the nucleus.
  • A long, double-stranded molecule.
  • Forms a helix structure (a twisted ladder).
  • Contains ALL the instructions necessary for ALL life on earth.
structure of dna
Structure of DNA
  • The sides of the DNA ladder are made of sugar and phosphate.
  • The steps are made up of four nitrogen bases.
  • 1. adenine (A)
  • 2. guanine (G)
  • 3. cytosine (C)
  • 4. thymine (T)
base pairing rules
Base Pairing Rules
  • The bases in a DNA molecule always join in a specific way:
    • A always joins with T
    • G always joins with C
  • This is called Chargaff’s Rule.
base pairing rules cont
Base Pairing Rules cont…
  • Q: What would one side of the DNA molecule read if the other side was:
  • A T C C G G A T A C G C
chromosomes
Chromosomes
  • DNA is found in structures call chromosomes.
  • When a cell is ready to divide, each strand of loosely coiled DNA folds up further into a compact, X-shaped structure called a chromosome.
chromosomes cont
Chromosomes cont…
  • Chromosomes within the nucleus are found in pairs.
  • Most humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes including one pair that determines gender.
  • Q: What is the total number of chromosomes in a human cell?
  • Q: Would you expect a butterfly to have more of less chromosomes than a human?
genes
Genes
  • found on chromosomes.
  • small segments of DNA located at specific places on a chromosome.
  • store information needed to produce proteins used by body cells.
  • How many genes would fit along a chromosome?
genes cont
Genes cont…
  • Genes can vary in length from hundreds to thousands of bases.
  • The arrangement of bases will determine the protein produced.
  • Each chromosome contains thousands of genes.
from gene to protein
From gene to protein
  • Proteins determine what body cells will become and how they will function.
  • Specialized cells will form tissues; tissues will form organs.
reading check check your understanding

Reading Check/Check Your Understanding

Do questions 1-3 on page 119.

Do questions 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12 on page 121.

section 4 2

Section 4.2

Mutations

gene mutation
Gene Mutation
  • A gene mutation is a change in the specific order of the bases that make up a particular gene.
  • A base may be:
    • Added
    • Deleted
    • Substituted for another
a drastic visual mutation
A Drastic Visual Mutation
  • Do you think this mutation will affect the mutated bear’s chances of survival.
activity gene mutations

Activity – Gene Mutations

Do activity 4-2A on page 123.

effects of mutations
Effects of Mutations
  • 1. Positive Mutation
    • Benefits an individual
      • Ex. Resistance to disease
slide23

2. Negative Mutation

    • Harms the individual
    • Reduce the probability that the individual will produce offspring or survive in their environment.
slide24

Neutral Mutation

    • Does not affect the individual
      • Ex. Coat Color
mutagens
Mutagens
  • Substances or factors that can cause mutations in DNA.
    • Ex. Cigarette smoke, X-rays, pollutants
  • Nature
    • Ex. Solar radiation
    • Radioactive gases
  • Human Activity
    • Ex. Chemicals
    • Nuclear Radiation
cyu questions p 131 s 2 8 10 12 13 15

CYU Questionsp. 131, #s 2-8, 10, 12, 13, 15

Chapter Review Questions

p. 132, #s 3-5, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 19, 20