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Chapter Six Bacteria & Viruses

Life Science Mr. Galloway. Chapter Six Bacteria & Viruses. 6.1 Classifying Organisms 6.2 The Six Kingdoms 6.3 Bacteria 6.4 Viruses. Recommended Website:. Classification = the process of grouping things based on their similarities.

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Chapter Six Bacteria & Viruses

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  1. Life ScienceMr. Galloway Chapter Six Bacteria & Viruses 6.1 Classifying Organisms 6.2 The Six Kingdoms 6.3 Bacteria 6.4 Viruses Recommended Website:

  2. Classification = the process of grouping things based on their similarities. • Biologists use it to organize living things into groups for easier study. • * Evolutionary theory now dominates the classification system, and assumes that similar organisms in a group evolved from a common ancestor. • * But, many scientists reject evolution and use the system only for identification.

  3. The Bible’s Basic System –(Nephesh means feeling, thinking creature) (The word “creature” implies a Creator: GOD) * Plants (Fruit bearing, grass) (Plants do not have “Nephesh” life) * Nephesh Animals (Flyers, Swimmers, Walkers) * Nephesh Man (personally made by God to reflect His character)

  4. Man’s Early Systems of Classification: * Aristole (Greek in 4th centrury B.C.) Three groups (Fly, Swim, Walk) * Linnaeus (1750’s) used a two-part naming system from Latin. (Dog = Canis familiaris) - Binomial Nomenclature = a two-part name 1. Genus = first part of the name (Capitalized) (Groups similar, related organisms) 2. Species = second part of the name. (Lowercase) (Groups similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring)

  5. Binomial Nomenclature

  6. Land Classification Examples Worlds(Earth, Mars, Venus…) Continents(North American, Europe…) Countries(America, Canada, Spain…) States(Louisiana, Texas, Utah, …) Parishes(Counties)Cities (Slidell, Dallas, …) Neighborhoods(…)Streets (…) Houses(…)

  7. Classifying Your Own House Worlds(Earth) Continents(North American) Countries(America) States(Louisiana) Parishes(St. Tammany)Cities (Covington Neighborhoods(????…)Streets ( ???…) Houses(???…)

  8. Seven Levels of Creature Classification: Kingdom – Phylum – Class – Order – Family – Genus – Species – “Kingdom” is the biggest and broadest. Each kingdom contains phyla – each phyla contains classes, etc. The more levels that two organisms share, the more characteristics they have in common.

  9. Try this to remember the first letters of the levels: Kings Place Crowns On Faithful Godly Servants

  10. How can you identify an organism you find? Field Guide = book with pictures and descriptions of organisms and characteristics Taxonomic Key = series of paired statements describing characteristics of organisms Taxonomy = the scientific study of how living things are classified.

  11. Section 6.2 The Six Kingdoms Linnaeus only used two kingdoms (Plants and Animals) Until recently, scientists used a five kingdom system that combines #’s 1 & 2 below. Six Kingdoms are now the standard: 1. Archaebacteria 2. Eubacteria 3. Protists 4. Fungi 5. Plants 6. Animals

  12. Archaebacteria (Unicellular) • - prokaryotes = genetic material is not in a nucleus • * Means “ancient bacteria”, since evolutionists believe they evolved first. • * Some live in extreme environments, like very hot water near lava. • * Some are autotrophs, and some are heterotrophs

  13. 2. Eubacteria (Unicellular prokaryotes) “True Bacteria” * Similar to archaebacteria, but their chemical makeup is different. * Live all over the world, including your body. * Most are harmless, and some are very useful.

  14. 3. Protists (“Odds and ends” category; many types.) * Some are unicellular like the paramecium, yet others are multicellular (seaweed). * They are all eukaryotes (have a nucleus around their genetic material).

  15. 4. Fungi (Mushrooms, molds, mildew, yeast) * Most are multicellular eukaryotes. * A few like yeast are unicellular eukaryotes. * All are heterotrophs, most feed on decaying organisms.

  16. 5. Plants * All are multicellular eukaryotes. * All are autotrophs.

  17. 6. Animals * All are multicellular eukaryotes. * And all are heterotrophs.

  18. Bacteria are single-celled prokaryotes (genetic material not in a nucleus).Cell Shapes – (Spherical, rodlike, spiral) * Cell wall and its chemistry determine the shape. Flagellum = long, whiplike structure for movement * Most have no flagellum, others one or many. Two Kingdoms of Bacteria: Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

  19. Reproduction in Bacteria: Asexual Reproduction = involves only one parent producing identical offspring. * Binary Fission = asexual reproduction where one cell divides to make two.Sexual Reproduction = for animals it involves two parents who combine genetic material to produce offspring. * But bacteria do not produce baby bacteria this way. * Their sexual reproduction is by conjugation. * Conjugation = one bacterium transfers genetic material to another bacterium. (Then each later divides by binary fission.)

  20. Bacterial Conjugation (sexual reproduction)

  21. Bacterial Survival Needs – source of food, a way to break it down (respiration) to release energy, etc.Autotrophs (some use photosynthesis, others in deep oceans use chemical ways) Heterotrophs (consume other things) (Yogurt, cheese, and apple cider) * Decomposers = (“recyclers”) that live in soil and break down chemicals in dead animals and plants. Endospore = a thick, rounded, thick-walled, resting cell formed inside a bacterial cell. * Some bacteria form this when the environment is to harsh for growth. (Anthrax is an example.) * Endospores can resist freezing, heating, and drying. * When the environmental conditions are OK again, the bacterium begins to grow.

  22. VirusesAlien Invaders Viruses are NON-living particles that invade living cells. * Viruses do not use energy to grow, or respond to surroundings. * Viruses reproduce by invading living cells and forcing them to make more. * They destroy the living cell in the process.

  23. Host = a living thing that provides a source of energy for a virus or an organism. Parasite = organisms that live on or in a host and cause harm to the host. * All viruses are parasites since they destroy living cells.Naming Viruses: NOT by a binomial nomenclature, since they are not alive. * Named after scientists, diseases, hosts

  24. Shapes and Sizes of Viruses: Shapes - round, rods, bricklike, bulletlike, or even ROBOT like the Bacteriophage, which infects bacteria.Sizes – 22 to 250 nm (nanometers) (nm = one billionth of a meter. Much smaller than even a bacterium, 750 nm, like the strep throat bacteria)Structure of Viruses: Two basic parts: 1. Outer Protein Coat (which locks onto certain living cells and not others)2. Inner Genetic Core (which is injected into the cell and takes over)

  25. Bacteriophage “Bacteria Eater” • Genes • Head • Tail • Tail Fibers

  26. How Viruses Multiply: * Genetic material is injected into the cell and takes over the cell’s programs.* Directs the cell to make more virus particles.* Many new virus particles form inside the cell, until the cell burst.Active Viruses = immediately begin multiplying inside the cell.Hidden Viruses = injects genetic material which waits until later to multiply. (Often waits until the body of the host is weak from stress.)

  27. Virus (bacteriophage)

  28. How a bacteriophage invades a living cell.


  30. Viral Diseases: (Colds, Flu, AIDS, measles, Rabies, etc.) Vaccine = a substance that stimulates the body to produce chemicals that destroy viruses or bacteria. * Made of altered virus or bacteria. * It causes the body to be “on alert” for live invaders similar to the vaccine ones.

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