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BACTERIA

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  1. BACTERIA Biology Chapter 24

  2. Bacteria are very small

  3. This is a pore in human skin and the yellow spheres are bacteria

  4. Bacteria are very small compar-ed to cells with nuclei

  5. Bacteria compared to a white blood cell that is going to eat it Bacteria

  6. Clean skin has about 20 million bacteria per square inch

  7. Evolution/Classification • Most numerous on Earth • Most Ancient • Microscopic Prokaryotes • Evolution has yielded many species adapted to survive where no other organisms can. • Grouped based on: • Structure, physiology, molec. Compositionreaction to specific types of stain. • Eubacteria= Germs/bacteria • Archaebacteria

  8. Kingdom Archaebacteria • First discovered in extreme environments • Methanogens: Harvest energy by converting H2 and CO2 into methane gas • Anaerobic, live in intestinal tracts • Extreme halophiles: Salt loving, live in Great Salt Lake, and Dead sea. • Thermoacidophiles: Live in acid environments and high temps. • Hot Springs, volcanic vents

  9. Volcanic vents on the sea floor

  10. Chemosynthetic bacteria use the sulfur in the “smoke” for energy to make ATP.

  11. The red color of this snow is due to a blue-green bacteria

  12. Kingdom Eubacteria • Can have one of three basic shapes • Bacilli – rod-shaped • Spirilla – spiral-shaped • Cocci – sphere-shaped • Staphylococci – grape-like clusters Streptococci – in chains SHOW ME

  13. BACTERIA PICS

  14. Bacillus bacteria are rod or sausage shaped

  15. Coccus bacteria are sphere or ball shaped

  16. Spirillium bacteria have a corkscrew shape

  17. Diplo-bacteria occur in pairs, such as the diplococcus bacteria that causes gonorrhea

  18. Staphylo - bacteria occur in clumps, such as this staphylococcus bacteria that causes common infections of cuts

  19. Strepto- bacteria occur in chains of bacteria, such as this streptococcus bacteria that causes some types of sore throats

  20. Spirillium bacteria

  21. Diplobacillus bacteria

  22. Streptococcus bacteria

  23. Staphylococcus bacteria

  24. The tip of a needle The red and yellow dots are bacteria

  25. Gram Stain • Gram-positive retain stain and appear purple • Have thicker layer in cell wall. • Gram-negative do not retain stain and take second pink stain instead.

  26. STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA

  27. No Nucleus-DNA in Cytoplasm

  28. Nutrition and Growth • Heterotrophic or Autotrophic • Some are Photoautotrophs – Use sunlight for Energy • Some are Chemoautotrophs. • Many are Obligate Anaerobes. • Oxygen = Death • Ex. Clostridium tetani – Tetanus • Some are Faculatative Anaerobes • With or without Oxygen • Ex. Escherichia Coli • Some are Obligate Aerobes • Ex.) Mycobacterium tuberculosis • Temperature requirements • Some are Thermophilic, Some prefer acidic envmt.

  29. These heterotrophic bacteria digest oil -- remember oil is partially decayed plant and animal cells

  30. REPRODUCTION IN BACTERIA (please add to notes)

  31. No Nucleus-DNA in Cytoplasm

  32. BACTERIA REPRODUCES BY FISSION First the chromosomal DNA makes a copy The DNA replicates

  33. NEXT THE CYTOPLASM AND CELL DIVIDES The two resulting cells are exactly the same

  34. In addition to the large chromosomal DNA, bacteria have many small loops of DNA called Plasmids

  35. Genetic Recombination • Nonreproductive Methods bacteria can acquire new genetic material.

  36. TRANSFORMATION This plasmid of DNA is new to the bacteria – added by transformation! Produces the glowing protein

  37. CONJUGATION

  38. TRANSDUCTION

  39. Bacteria and Disease

  40. Some bacteria cause diseases --Disease causing bacteria are call PATHOGENIC

  41. Helicobacter pylori is the pathogenic bacteria that can causes ulcers

  42. Leprosy is a bacterial infection that decreases blood flow to the extremities resulting in the deterioration of toes, ears, the nose and the fingers.

  43. BOTULISM

  44. CHOLERA

  45. DENTAL CARIES

  46. ROCKY MOUNTAIN SF

  47. LYME DISEASE

  48. SALMONELLA

  49. STREP THROAT

  50. TETANUS