WHAT IS CULTURE? Cultural Dimensions Theory for the College Classroom
UNIT OUTCOMES • Define culture and terms associated to culture • Identify Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions • Understand different value and belief systems between individualistic and collectivistic cultures • Discover how culture can contribute to conflict with a work group or organization • Interact in a manner that reflects the cultural sensitivities within a foreign environment
DOMINO ACTIVITY – find this! Put all the vocabulary words next to their corresponding definitionsso that you form a circle in the end.
CULTURE The set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people, but different for each individual, communicated from one generation to the next. Matsumoto, 1996
Three levels of mental programming Hofstede, 1994
Culture Discussion questions • Is it possible to truly understand a culture outside of your own? Why or why not? • How can we study the elements of culture “below the surface”? • How can we avoid stereotyping? • When examining the behaviors and values of a culture, how can we get away from feelings of “right” versus “wrong”?
american culture Work with a partner to provide one example of the different features of culture on your handout.
Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory The Hofstede Center • Power Distance (PDI) • Individualism vs. Collectivism (IDV) • Masculinity vs. Femininity (MAS) • Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) • Long Term vs. Short-Term Orientation (LTO) • Indulgence vs. Restraint (IVR)
Individualism vs. collectivism Watch a short video on individualism and collectivism: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CW7aWKXB5J4
HIGHLY INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURES • People taking care of themselves / immediate family • Self-orientation • Identity based on individual • Guilt culture • Making decisions based on individual needs • “I” mentality • Emphasis on individual initiative and achievement • Everyone has a right to a private life
HIGHLY COLLECTIVISTIC CULTURES • Expect absolute loyalty to group (nuclear family, extended family, caste, organization) • Group orientation • Decisions based on what is best for the group. • Identity based on social system • Shame culture • Dependence on organization and institutions (Expects organization / institution / group to take care of individual) • “We” mentality • Emphasis on belonging • Private life “invaded” by institution and organizations to which one belongs
Individualism vs. collectivism Check out the country rankings: http://hbdchick.wordpress.com/2013/09/07/national-individualism-collectivism-scores/
Cross-cultural conflict Cross-cultural conflict can be defined as conflict generated, and perhaps exacerbated or perpetuated, by cultural differences among the groups involved in the conflict. A person’s culture informs his or her worldview, moral code, judgments, and ideas or perceptions about others. Of course, these aspects of a culture can be incorrect or misinformed, leading to conflict with other cultures or groups of people. The power of culture is strong, however, and it can be difficult to overcome cross-cultural conflict, as evidenced by the numerous conflicts between different cultural groups that continue to rage around the world today. Kinney, www.ehow.com, What Is Cross-Cultural Conflict?
Cross-cultural conflict • ETHNOCENTRIC: The DON’Ts • Don’t ignore the differences or deny they exist • Don’t evaluate them negatively • Don’t minimize their importance • Don’t put your own beliefs/values above others • ETHNORELATIVE: The DOs • Recognize, seek to understand, and accept the differences • Adapt to the differences by moving out of your comfort zone • Integrate the differences into a new frame of reference • Proactively look for the good in other cultures • Internalize the best of both cultures
GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP WHAT IS GLOBAL-MINDEDNESS? • A value orientation, or frame of reference, apart from knowledge about, or interest in, international relations. • We identify as highly world-minded the individual who favors a world-view of the problems of humanity, whose primary reference group is mankind, rather than American, English, or Chinese.” Sampson and Smith, 1957
IN SUMMARY A Declaration of Interdependence